- Type: Gusuku
- Founder: Satto?
- Year: 1350?
- Destroyed: 1945
- Reconstructed: 1992
- Location: Shuri, Okinawa
- Japanese/Okinawan:首里城(Shuri-jou / Sui gusuku)
Shuri castle was the chief royal palace of the Kingdom of Ryûkyû, serving as the chief royal residence, political center of the kingdom, site of numerous rituals and ceremonies, and repository of numerous national heirlooms, official records and other artifacts.
Rebuilt beginning in 1992, following its destruction in the 1945 Battle of Okinawa, the castle grounds are now the nationally-funded "Shuri Castle Park". Along with a number of other gusuku and related sites across the island, Shuri Castle was designated a World Heritage Site in 2000.
It is not clear when the castle was built. Most sources place its construction during the reign of Satto, king of Chûzan (r. c. 1355-1395), some as early as 1237. Official histories produced by the kingdom in the 18th-19th centuries, such as the Kyûyô, Chûzan seikan, and Ryûkyû-koku yuraiki, indicate that a tall tower several jô high, called Takayosôri 高世層裡, was constructed during Satto's reign, to the south of the Shicha-nu-unaa, and faced north. This location corresponds to what would later become the Kyô-no-uchi, the most sacred space within the Shuri gusuku grounds. There has been some debate as to the existence of this tower as a separate structure, or whether documentary mentions of this "Takayosôri" in fact refer to the Main Hall of Shuri castle as we know it today, albeit in an earlier incarnation. Historians Takara Kurayoshi and Uezato Takashi have suggested that it is rather unlikely that a tower that tall would have been built with the technology of the time, and that certain other sources (such as the diaries of Korean castaways) make no mention of such a structure, but only of those with which we would be more familiar, organized around the Unaa, the central plaza of the gusuku/palace complex as we know it today. Still, excavations in the Kyô-no-uchi have uncovered foundation stones and the remains of grey, 14th-15th century Japanese-style roof tiles, suggesting that some structure of note did once exist on that location. Excavations on the side of the Main Hall have also revealed remains of a tiled-roof structure from that time, leading scholars such as Uezato to conclude that even prior to Shuri becoming the royal palace, it functioned as a gusuku.
Though the timing of the shift of the royal capital from Urasoe to Shuri remains somewhat unclear, with some scholars suggesting the possibility of a considerable period of dual capitals, architectural historian Matayoshi Shinzô notes that the 1372 Ming embassy seems to have been sent to Shuri (not Urasoe), and that the 36 Min families who founded Kumemura in 1392 did so in Kume/Naha, and not at Makiminato near Urasoe, suggesting that Shuri was already the political center by that time.
In any case, Shuri was definitively the primary royal palace by 1427, during the reign of Shô Hashi (r. 1422-1439), first king of the united Kingdom of Ryûkyû. That the castle was extant at that time is confirmed by the inscription on the Ankoku-zan jukaboku stele, the oldest example of Okinawan writing surviving today, erected there in 1427. The stele also relates that Kaiki (Huái Jī), a prominent Chinese-born official in service to Shô Hashi, oversaw the landscaping of the castle grounds in accordance with feng shui / geomantic beliefs and traditions. After traveling to China in 1417 and coming back to Ryûkyû, Kaiki directed the construction of the Ryûtan pond below the castle, the planting of flowering trees around the pond, and the construction of an artificial hill to the west of the castle.
Succession disputes which broke out following the death of King Shô Kinpuku in 1453 led to the destruction of the palace buildings at that time, and the loss of many artifacts including silver seals granted the kings of Ryûkyû by the Hongwu Emperor as signs of authority. The castle was rebuilt shortly afterward.
Little is known about the appearance of the castle in this early period. However, the accounts of Korean castaway Ryang Seong give some sense of it. According to Ryang, the castle resembled those in Korea, with high, winding walls and numerous buildings within the grounds. Shuri in particular incorporated three sets of walls; stables and a storehouse were located within the outermost wall, barracks for about 200 soldiers were located within the second enclosure, and a three-story building stood at the center of the innermost enclosure. This three-story structure was the seat of government and the residence of the king on certain lucky days of the calendar; it contained stores for food and wine in the bottom floor and for royal treasures on the top floor. The roof was of planks or slats, not ceramic tiles. The king, who otherwise resided in a two-story building nearby, possibly attached to the three-story structure, was regularly attended by around one hundred male servants and another one hundred female attendants, many or all of whom were armed with swords and served as the king's guard.
Archaeological excavations have revealed that an area in the western portion of the castle grounds, known as the Iri no Azana, was home to metalworking facilities. The remains or at least indications of the former presence of a furnace, trenches, crucibles, and molds have been found; it is believed that large temple bells, among other items, were produced here, within the castle grounds.
The reigns of Shô Shin (r. 1477-1526) and Shô Sei (r. 1527-1555) saw considerable renovation and expansion of the castle, including the construction or expansion of the outer ring of stone walls in 1544-1546, addition of the stone dragon pillars at the entrance to the Seiden in 1508, and the construction of a number of temples and secondary buildings outside the castle complex proper, including the royal mausoleum of Tamaudun, completed in 1501. The castle would remain through the centuries largely in the form it took at this time.
It was famously sieged in 1609, when the kingdom fell to forces of the Shimazu clan of Satsuma han. Ryukyuan defenses fell quickly to the samurai invaders, who entered the castle on 1609/4/3; King Shô Nei surrendered two days later. The castle was looted: many artifacts and documents were stolen or destroyed, and the king was taken hostage along with the queen, crown prince, and a great many government advisors and officials. Shô Nei was allowed to return to Shuri, however, in 1611, and to resume governance of the kingdom, under the watchful eye and strict guidelines of Satsuma; Shuri castle remained the center of governance until the abolition of the kingdom in 1879.
Commodore Perry entered the castle on two occasions in 1853 and 1854, despite having been explicitly told that he would be "neither expected nor welcome". The gates were opened for him out of fear that he might bring force to bear upon them were he denied entry. The Ryukyuans were successful, however, in denying him an audience with the king or dowager queen, holding to their insistence that the regent would be the highest ranking official Perry would be permitted to meet. Both marches on the castle served essentially as shows of force or authority for Perry, who wished to prove to himself (and to the Ryukyuans) that he was of sufficient power and authority to make demands such as these and to have them met.
Shuri castle was destroyed by fire at least five times in its history, most recently on Oct 31, 2019, in a conflagration started perhaps by an electrical fault, which ultimately consumed the main hall and six other buildings.
Records from the time indicate that when the castle was rebuilt in 1672, following a 1660 fire, the roofs were tiled where they had been previously covered in wooden shingles, as a precautionary measure towards better fire-proofing. Shô Shôken (Haneji Chôshu) directed the construction project at that time. Archaeological excavations, however, have found both Korean and Japanese roof tiles dating to before this fire, indicating that at least some sections of the castle bore tiled roofs much earlier. The castle burned again and was rebuilt in 1690, 1709 (rebuilt 1712), and 1730. It was this 1730 iteration of the castle which stood until World War II. Considerable repair work was done in 1837, and again in 1846 and 1851 with several of the gates being given double- and then triple-doors, but the castle would not suffer destruction again until 1945.
The restoration of the palace buildings after the 1660 fire is said to have been particularly difficult, and to have taken twelve years, because of the royal court's financial situation at the time. Lumber was sourced in some significant part from Kumejima for this restoration. The restoration following the 1709 fire, by contrast, took only three years; lord of Kagoshima domain Shimazu Yoshitaka donated more than 19,500 logs to contribute to this restoration effort.
The kingdom was abolished and replaced with Ryûkyû han in 1872; the abolition of Ryûkyû han in turn and establishment of Okinawa prefecture in 1879 was the final nail in the coffin for the Ryûkyû Kingdom. The castle was occupied by Imperial Japanese forces, specifically the Kumamoto Garrison, immediately upon being vacated by the former king and his court. The Seiden and Yosoeden became sleeping quarters for the troops, the Nanden and Shoin quarters for the officers, and the Sasunoma the commander's quarters. The Unaa plaza in front of the main hall was used for drills.
The Kumamoto Garrison was removed from Shuri castle in 1896, and three years later, Shuri Ward petitioned the national government to convert the castle grounds into leisure space, citing the then-popular Victorian idea of the association of public leisure space with social progress. The petition argued that Okinawa Prefecture had failed to provide public leisure space in accordance with policies being implemented throughout mainland Japan, and that it would be most regrettable if the castle were to sink into further disrepair and delapidation due to abandonment. Shuri Ward requested ownership/administration of the castle grounds, but was refused. The following year, the Home Ministry agreed to sell the castle buildings to the Ward, but only leased the land for a thirty-year period, retaining control/ownership. Shuri Ward was finally permitted to buy the land outright in 1909. Even so, the castle continued to fall into ever worse disrepair. Meanwhile, a number of schools were established on the grounds, including the Okinawa Normal School (Okinawa shihan gakkô) and its attached elementary school, an industrial school (kôgyô gakkô), and Shuri Women's Crafts School (Shuri kuritsu joshi kôgei gakkô), which later became Shuri Girls' High School (Shuri kôtô jogakkô). Several of the castle buildings themselves were used for weaving and for other courses. Another elementary school established on the site used the Kobikimon as the main entrance into the school grounds.
Lacking the funds to repair or maintain the castle, Shuri Ward made the difficult decision in 1923 to tear down the Seiden rather than allow it to become an even greater danger. However, a newspaper article about this decision written by Sueyoshi Ankyô caught the attention of mingei scholar Kamakura Yoshitarô, who enlisted the help of Tokyo Imperial University architecture professor Itô Chûta, who managed to convince the head of the Bureau of Shrine Affairs (Jinja kyoku) within the Home Ministry (Naimushô) to order the demolition halted.
Around 1925, with the considerable contributions of architect Itô Chûta, the castle was converted into "Okinawa Shrine", a Shinto shrine within the national networks of State Shinto. The core of the shrine itself (honden) was constructed behind the Yosoeden, in an area known as the Kanegura 金蔵; the Seiden was then made the main worship hall, or haiden, of the shrine. This was done so that the castle could be designated a National Treasure, which it was that same year, in order for considerable national funds to be diverted to funding restoration and preservation efforts. This transformation of the castle into a shrine was necessary because at the time, up until 1932, Shinto shrines and Buddhist temples were the only sites which could be declared National Treasures. The Seiden (as "Okinawa Shrine") was designated a National Treasure in 1929; the Shureimon, Kankaimon, Zuisenmon, and a number of other structures were named National Treasures in 1933. All lost the designation after being destroyed in 1945.
Destruction and Restoration
Extensive repairs were made to Shuri castle in 1928-1933, while retaining the form it held since 1712. These were overseen by Ministry of Education engineer Sakatani Ryônoshin, with the construction work itself led by miya daiku (shrine/temple carpenter) Yanagita Kikuzô. An underground headquarters for the 32nd Army was constructed below the castle in 1944, however, leading to its destruction in the 1945 Battle of Okinawa. The University of the Ryukyus was then established on the former site of the castle and remained there for many years, until, after decades of popular movements and pushes to see the castle rebuilt, the university moved and reconstruction finally began on the castle in 1992, on the 20th anniversary of the reversion of Okinawa to Japanese sovereignty following the US Occupation.
This was a long process, however. The Shureimon gate was the first portion of the castle to be restored, in 1958. Ten years later, in 1968-69, the main gate at the nearby Engaku-ji temple, along with the Benten-dô (Benten Hall) and Tennyo-bashi (Tennyo Bridge) at the Ryûtan Pond were restored. The Ryukyu Government decided upon a plan in 1970 to restore the castle and various cultural assets (artifacts) lost in the war. The same year, the national government of Japan reached a cabinet decision regarding the reversion of Okinawa to Japanese authority (i.e. the end of the Occupation), and made clear its support for the restoration of the castle and cultural assets. The following year, funds were explicitly set aside for the restoration project within the budget of the Ministry of State for Okinawa and the Northern Territories. In 1972, the US Occupation ended and Japanese administration of Okinawa prefecture was resumed; the site was then named a "Historical Site" (shiseki) under the Law for the Protection of Cultural Properties, and an official Okinawa Promotion and Development Plan that year explicitly included discussion of a plan to restore the castle and associated cultural assets. Work then began on restoring other portions of the castle compound and surrounding areas, with the Kankaimon being restored over a two-year process from 1972-74 and the royal mausoleum at Tamaudun in 1973-76. An "Association for Realizing the Restoration of Shuri Castle" (Shurijô fukugen kisei kai) was established in 1973, and work began on the castle's Kyûkeimon gate in 1976. The Second Okinawa Promotion and Development Plan, put out in 1982, explicitly discussed matters including determining the extent of the grounds that should be made a public park, and the areas that should be made areas for historical and cultural preservation.
Prof. Takara Kurayoshi and a team of other prominent scholars on Ryukyuan history conducted extensive research on the design and appearance of the historical palace buildings, in order for the reconstruction to be performed as accurately as possible. The discovery of the 1846 Umundasui udun gofushin nikki, 1839 Zuchô (Shiiduhô / Ataihô), and other materials among the Ryukyu Royal Sho Family Documents (Shôke monjo) and in the notebooks of Kamakura Yoshitarô were a tremendous boon to this effort, describing and illustrating in text and image the dimensions, colors, layout, materials, and other key information about the construction of the palace buildings (especially the Main Hall) in their 18th-19th century, Kingdom-era, incarnation. A set of documents entitled Kokuhô kenzôbutsu Okinawa jinja haiden zu produced in 1933 and held today by the Agency for Cultural Affairs (Bunkachô), consisting of 23 blueprint-style technical drawings of the layout of the Main Hall, were also used in this effort.
Reconstruction work on the Seiden and other central buildings began in earnest on July 18, 1989, with a groundbreaking ceremony (kikôshiki) and lumber-felling ceremony (kobiki-shiki) being held on November 2-3, 1989. While symbolic lumber was ceremonially carried down to Shuri from Kunigami as had been done in previous centuries, the restoration was completed primarily using wood from outside of Okinawa prefecture. Cypress from Taiwan was used for much of the central palace structures, including for the largest upright pillars, and woods such as oak and podocarpus (J: inumaki, O: chaagi) from Amami and Tokunoshima were also used, along with materials from elsewhere. Okinawan architects, carpenters, and craftsmen headed the various aspects of the project, aided by miyadaiku (experts in traditional Japanese architecture & carpentry) and craftsmen from mainland Japan. While the Seiden and certain other structures were restored in a traditional manner in all-wood-construction, the Hokuden, Nanden, and most other buildings were rebuilt in reinforced concrete, with only the outward appearance of being traditional-style wooden structures.
While responsibility for the management and maintenance of the castle grounds and structures was divided between the national and prefectural governments, the Churashima Foundation (which also oversees Okinawa Ocean Expo Park and plays a prominent role in the operation of the Okinawa Prefectural Museum) oversees the reproduction and maintenance of individual objects such as statuary, furniture, and wall decor, as well as the castle's collections of surviving historical artworks and artifacts. The grounds beneath and around the reconstructed castle were named a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2000, and the reconstructed castle became the site of regular reenactments of royal court ceremonies and numerous other cultural performances, as well as regularly-cycling temporary exhibits of artworks and other treasures related to the kingdom. The castle quickly became the most-visited tourist site on Okinawa Island, boasting some three million visitors a year. Over the following decades, additional areas were restored and opened to the public. The Yuinchi, Kugani udun, Kinshû tsumesho, and Okushoin (described below) were restored and opened in 2014, and in February 2019, areas of the Agari no Azana (eastern lookout) and Ouchibaru (women's quarters) not previously open were made accessible to the public.
The Seiden caught fire early in the morning on Oct 31, 2019; the fire soon spread, and by the time it was put out in the early afternoon that same day, the Seiden and Hokuden had been completely destroyed, with the Nanden and four other structures (for a total of seven structures) suffering severe damage. Out of the roughly 1500 historical treasures and notable reproductions held at the castle, roughly 421 were lost in the fire. Those lost included several (original, historical) paintings and documents and numerous lacquerware and pottery objects that had been on display in the temporary exhibit galleries at the time of the fire, a number of replicas produced since the 1980s, including the royal thrones, royal crown, royal seals, and lacquered Qing imperial calligraphy plaques displayed in the throne room, and models of the castle displayed in the Main Hall and gift shop. As of 2020, reconstruction is projected to be completed in 2026.
The castle is situated on a hill, 130m above sea level at its highest point, selected for its excellent feng shui as a "dragon hollow" (C: lóng xué) where qi flowing from "dragon veins" (C: lóngmài) gathers and pools, and for the freshwater spring known as Ryûhi ("Dragon Spring") which could provide water to the castle. The grounds cover roughly 46,000 square meters, extending roughly 400 meters from east to west, and 270 meters from north to south. The compound includes four gates in the outer wall, and eight gates in the inner complex. In contrast to most imperial and royal palaces in East Asia, which face south, the main palace hall (J: seiden) at Shuri faces the west, in accordance with feng shui calculations determined by the kingdom's scholar-officials based on the natural topography of the area. Interestingly, the feng shui directional associations at Shuri are rotated, with west serving as though it were south. Thus, the Vermillion Bird (J: sujaku) of the South is associated at Shuri with the west, the "Dark Warrior" (J: genbu) of the north with the mountains to the east, and so forth.
A gate in the eastern side of the outer walls known as the Keiseimon (継世門), built in 1543 or 1546 in conjunction with an expansion of the castle walls, serves essentially as the rear gate to the compound, situated as it is on the opposite end of the compound from the main gates to the castle, the Shureimon and Kankaimon. Also known as the Akata gomon 赤田御門 and as the Suetsugi-ujô 継世門 in Okinawan, this gate at the rear of the complex was used by a crown prince when entering the castle after the death of his predecessor, in order to undertake his succession ceremony in the Yohokori-den 世誇殿. It was also by this gate that Shô Tai, the last king of Ryûkyû, departed the castle when abdicating the palace to the Japanese in 1879.
A pair of stelae which stand at the Keiseimon are said to have been erected in 1544, and were intended to serve as spiritual or symbolic protection against wakô. Two other outer gates, called the Uekimon (右掖門) and Shukujunmon (淑順門), situated to the north side of the complex, provided access to an inner garden, called the ouchibara (御内原) in Okinawan. Today, tourists following the designated route pass through the Uekimon on their way out of the castle at the end of their visit.
Several buildings stood inside these outer gates. One, known in Japanese as zenikura 銭蔵, was a two-story storehouse where awamori, oils, and other materials, as well as money for the court's everyday use, was stored. A stables for three to five horses stood nearby, along with an office for those overseeing these two buildings, and overseeing or guarding the castle throughout the day and night.
Just beyond the castle walls could be found the Buddhist temple Engaku-ji and the Ryûtan and Enkan ponds which were constructed for the leisure and recreation of visiting Chinese investiture envoys. One of the highest points in the compound, the "West Azana" or shimasoe azana, is also situated outside of the castle walls. Here, banners would be flown and a bell rung to announce the time. The azana rises roughly 130m above sea level, offering extensive views of Naha city and harbor, and of the castle. There is also an Eastern Azana, on the opposite end of the compound; these two azana were the chief watchtowers for the complex.
The walls themselves, just over one kilometer in total length, are generally about three meters thick and range between 6 to 15 meters in height. They are composed of stones fit together to form a smooth, steep surface difficult to climb. Flat, narrow walkways topped the walls, but they lacked merlons (aka battlements or crenelations) or loopholes which would have protected defenders atop the walls while allowing them to fire down upon invaders.
The castle historically boasted thirteen gates. The outermost gates leading up to the castle, the Chûzanmon and Shureimon, were built in a Chinese paifang style as roofed wooden structures straddling the road. The Kankaimon, Kobikimon, Kyûkeimon, and Keiseimon consisted chiefly of arches built (cut) directly into the stone, something more typical of Chinese architecture than of Japanese. Several of the inner gates of the castle, including the Zuisenmon and Rôkokumon, by contrast, consist of a wooden gatehouse stretched across a gap in the wall, forming a rectangular opening; though this type of gate construction is commonly seen in Japanese castles, the gatehouses at Shuri were built in a Chinese-influenced architectural style and painted red.
About 500 meters to the west was the outermost gate of the castle, known as Chûzanmon 中山門. Built in the style of a Chinese paifang gate in 1428, it was originally known as Kenkokumon 建国門 ("Establishment of the Country Gate"). It was the same size and same style as the Shureimon, and had its roof switched from wooden planks to ceramic tiles in 1681. The name "Chûzanmon" derives from a plaque hung on the gate, reading "Chûzan," gifted to the kingdom by Chái Shān, a Ming Dynasty official who came to Ryûkyû in 1425 for the investiture of King Shô Hashi. Following the abolition of the kingdom, the gate was allowed to simply fall into decay, and in 1908 it was torn down and has not been re-erected. Marking the entrance to Shuri's Aijo-ufumichi (Aijo Boulevard), the Chûzanmon was previously also known as shimu nu aijo (J: shita no ayamon) and shimun tui (J: shita no torii). A bingata textiles workshop and shop stands today at the former site of the gate.
The symbolic entrance to the castle proper was the Shureimon, originally constructed around 1555 during the reign of Shô Sei (r. 1527-1555). It remains today one of the most famous symbols of Okinawa, and of the kingdom and the castle more specifically. Architecturally patterned after a Chinese paifang gate, the Shureimon is just over seven meters tall, and just under eight meters wide. It was declared a National Treasure in 1933, but was destroyed in World War II; the current gate dates to 1958. The Shureimon takes its name from the plaque installed upon it which declares Ryûkyû to be shurei no kuni (守禮之邦), often translated as "(a) Nation of Propriety." This plaque was created during the reign of Shô Ei (r. 1573-1588), and was originally only displayed when Chinese investiture envoys were visiting the kingdom, but during the reign of King Shô Shitsu (r. 1648-1668), the plaque came to be hung at the gate permanently. Historian Mark McNally has suggested that the plaque was especially seen as a reminder that the kingdom should strive to aspire to being a "kingdom of propriety." Previously, plaques had been hung from the gate reading "Awaiting the Bearers of Virtue" (待賢, taiken), and then, during the reign of Shô Sei, this was replaced with a plaque reading, simply, "Shuri"; as a result, the gate was previously known as Taikenmon, and then Shurimon, after these plaques displayed at that time. The "Shurei no kuni" plaque currently hanging over the Shureimon, as well as those on several of the other gates to the castle, were produced by lacquerware artist Maeda Kôin.
Just within the gate can be found the stone gate to Sonohyan utaki, a sacred space of the native Ryukyuan religion, where the king and others would often pray. The gate was constructed in 1519, upon the orders of King Shô Shin, by a stonemason from Taketomi Island named Nishitô. Along the main path, just across from the stone gate to the utaki stand reconstructions of two stelae (stone monuments) erected there in 1522. One, the Madama minato himon, commemorates the construction by King Shô Shin of a series of roads and bridges for the defense of the city; the other, the Kokuô shôtokuhi, commemorates various other accomplishments of King Shô Shin, including his receiving of sacred beads and the sword Chiyoganemaru from Miyako Island as symbols of the subordination of Miyako and other islands at that time.
Beyond the symbolic Shureimon, the main gate granting entry through the outer walls of the compound is the Kankaimon (歓会門), flanked by two stone shisa (lion dogs); if one were to compare its role or function with structures at Japanese castles, it might be compared to an omote-mon or Ôtemon. Like most of the gates in the walls of Shuri Castle, the Kankaimon consists of a gap in the stone wall, with a wooden structure atop it, with a flared tiled roof. "Kankaimon" can be translated as "Gate of Welcome," a name given to it to better convey a spirit of welcome for visiting envoys of the Chinese Emperor; the Okinawan language name of the gate, Amae ujô (あまへ御門), has a similar meaning. The Kankaimon was built originally sometime around 1477-1500, and was most recently rebuilt or restored in 1974.
A short distance down the wall from the Kankaimon is the Kyûkeimon (久慶門), the women's gate, which is elevated somewhat, and reached by a short staircase. Constructed during the reign of Shô Shin, the Kyûkeimon was also used when the king paid official visits to temples and shrines, or to sites in Urasoe or further north. Rainwater falling on and around the castle naturally gathered here, at a pair of springs which thus served to supply fresh water to the castle. Rainwater was also collected in large terracotta pots known as tensuigame (天水瓷), arranged around the compound.
An additional external gate, the Bifukumon (美福門), faces the southeast. There are no known extant photographs of the gate, only a painting by oil painter Yamamoto Hôsui which is believed to depict the gate; Hôsui visited Okinawa in 1887, and the gate is believed to have been lost soon afterwards. Nevertheless, the gate has been reconstructed, along with the Keiseimon (継世門) further to the southeast, based on what limited sources survive.
Upon entering the Kankaimon or Kyûkeimon (both built c. 1477), a visitor, official, or royal would next ascend a set of stairs flanked by seven stone tablets of investiture, representing prior kings and the authority of the Throne. Even the king himself would dismount here from his palanquin and bow before proceeding further into the complex.
These stairs lead to the Zuisenmon, a red-painted wooden structure perched atop a gap in the stone wall. Zuisen means, essentially, "spring of beauty/purity/youth and good fortune"; the gate is also known as Hijaa-ujô (樋川御門), meaning "spring spout gate." This gate was originally built in 1470, and its names refer to the Ryûhi (龍樋) spring. Emerging to one side of the stairs, the spring was one of the main sources of fresh water to the castle. "Ryûhi," which means "dragon pipe" or "dragon flume," refers both to the spring itself and to a stone dragon head, made in China in 1523, which remains extant today as the main spout from which the water emerges. Seven stelae standing near the spring, originally erected in 1719 through 1866 and restored in 1996, preserve the praise of Chinese investiture envoys for the purity of the water. Where the Kankaimon and Kyûkeimon are composed of stone arches stretching across the opening, the Zuisenmon is formed of vertical stone on either side, crossed horizontally by a wooden guardhouse/turret structure, perhaps reflective of Japanese influence and resembling one traditional style of gatehouse from Sengoku period Japanese castles. In addition to the Ryûhi, a second spring, the Sungaa-gaa-hijaa (寒水川樋川), also served as an important water source for the castle. This spring flowed just outside of the Kyûkeimon, and drained into the Enkanchi (Enkan Pond), which in turn drained into the Ryûtan.
The path into the castle is never straight, the gates often situated at right angles to one another, in theory slowing an invading army and leaving attackers quite open to fire from defenders, stationed in the wooden gate structures and armed with Chinese-style firearms or bows & arrows. Stephen Turnbull notes, however, that the gates, and castle walls in general, lacked loopholes or other defensive features for defenders to hide behind. All in all, when the castle was invaded by Satsuma samurai in 1609, it fell quite quickly.
The next gate after the Zuisenmon is the Rôkokumon, or "Water Clock Gate", the final stone gate, which leads to a small plaza where a replica of the famous Bridge of Nations Bell is today kept inside a small structure called the Tomoya. The Rôkokumon, constructed in the 15th century, was as far as aristocrats came in their palanquins; in respect to the king, they would alight here. As a result, the gate is also known as Kagoise ujô, or "gate where palanquins are placed/left." A tank of water was held in the wooden structure atop the gate; as water leaked out, guards charged with watching the water level determined the time and communicated it by beating a taiko drum; guards in the nearby Uekimon would then transmit the message further by ringing a bronze bell. A sundial was installed nearby in 1739, and gradually came to replace the water clock.
A gate known as the Kobikimon 木曵門 located near the Kankaimon was traditionally sealed off by a pile of stones, and opened only when bringing lumber or other materials into the castle for repair or reconstruction efforts.
The Kôfukumon, a large, vermillion wooden structure leads finally into the shicha-nu-unaa (下之御庭), an area equivalent to what would be called the second bailey in English or ni-no-maru in a Japanese castle. The offices of the jishaza (寺社座), which oversaw Shinto shrines and Buddhist temples, and the ôkumiza (大与座) which mediated disputes between aristocrats, were housed here.
The shicha-nu-unaa contains the "Shuri forest utaki", or Suimui utaki, a sacred grove surrounded by its own low stone walls, which features in myths about the origins of the kingdom, and appears numerous times in the Omoro Sôshi, a collection of Okinawan myths in the form of songs or poems. Another important sacred site related to the origins of the castle and the kingdom, the kyô-no-uchi (京之内), is located along the southern wall of the shicha-nu-unaa and contains a number of utaki within it, including one known as Madanmui utaki 真玉森御嶽. The high priestess (kikoe-ôgimi) regularly performed rituals at sites within the Kyô-no-uchi to pray for the prosperity of the kingdom, safety for important sea voyages, good harvests and the like on behalf of the king and kingdom. Noro (priestesses) traditionally made their way around these various sacred sites within the castle compound on four occasions each year. The kyô no uchi was traditionally forbidden to men as its sacred power was considered too strong for them; once the area was restored in the 2010s, however, it was opened to all visitors.
The keizuza (系図座) and yômotsuza (用物座) were also located in the shicha-nu-unaa. While the keizuza was the chief office overseeing the compilation of aristocratic genealogies and official kingdom histories, the yômotsuza managed supplies for the castle as well as goods prepared for presentation to the Ming or Qing imperial courts, Satsuma domain, and the Tokugawa shogunate..
The largest gate in the complex, the Hôshinmon (O: Kimihokori ujô), leads into the central bailey, or unaa (J: honmaru). Completed some time before 1562, the gate was overhauled in 1754 to better follow Chinese models. The structure was used as storage for documents and materials related to musical entertainments, tobacco, tea and the like, and for rituals and ceremonies; today, it serves as the central administrative office of the heritage site & public park. Of the three gateways in the Hôshinmon structure, use of the central one was restricted to the king, Chinese imperial envoys, and others of similar rank.
The Unaa (御庭) is a trapezoidal (roughly but not truly square), open, plaza, bounded by the Hôshinmon gate on one side, with the Seiden, the chief royal residence, facing the gate, and the Hokuden and Nanden on the remaining two sides. The plaza itself was the site of many important rituals and ceremonies, including New Year's ceremonies, and the formal investiture of each king, for which a symbolic model of the Chinese Imperial Court throne room would be constructed on the plaza. Red and white tiles form ranks (sen, 磚) filling the plaza and marking where officials and aristocrats of various ranks would stand for these ceremonies; a raised path cutting through the plaza and leading directly across the plaza from the Hôshinmon to the Seiden was called the ukimichi (浮道, lit. "floating path") in Japanese, and was used only by the king, representatives of the Chinese Emperor, and others of similar rank. Originally raised some 15 cm above the plaza (hence the name "floating path"), the reconstructed ukimichi today is raised by only five cm. Overall, the plaza, and buildings within it, were conceived as a miniature of the Forbidden City (the Imperial Palace) in Beijing.
The two-story Nanden (南殿), or "South Hall," on one size of the plaza, is known as the Fee-nu-udun (南風御殿) in Okinawan. A Japanese-style structure, it was regularly used for receiving Satsuma officials and for other Japanese-style ceremonies. The one-story Bandokoro (番所) attached to it was used by Ryukyuan officials departing for the day to pass off paperwork or duties to those arriving. Records indicate that the Nanden was first built c. 1628, though archaeological excavations have discovered earlier foundations. There do not appear to be any records of it ever having been painted and so, in accordance with one school of Japanese traditional architectural customs, it remains composed primarily of bare wood. The two buildings today include exhibition spaces, where artifacts related to the castle and the royal family are put on display. Attached to the eastern end of the Nanden was a space known as the Kinjûtsumesho (近習詰所), where about twenty officials and scribed attached to the king were based; a number of them typically accompanied the king as he moved through the castle on daily business. Beyond this space was a small inner writing studio, or okushoin (奥書院). Three by three and a half bays (ma) in size, it was used by the king as a place to take a break from his duties, and also contained a space where the okushoin magistrate (okushoin bujô) worked. The okushoin faced a garden to the south, and the Kawarume utaki (苅銘御嶽) to the east. In contrast to the gardens attached to the Shoin and Sasu-no-ma which were more front-facing, the okushoin garden was a more private space.
The Hokuden (北殿), or "North Hall," also known as the giseiden (議政殿), faces the Nanden across the plaza, and is known as the Nishi-no-udun (北之御殿) in Okinawan. Built around 1506-1521, it is a structure more Chinese in style, which housed visiting Chinese officials and Chinese-style ceremonies and, as the site of the chief administrative offices of the royal government, was on an average day the busiest and most active building in the compound. Commodore Perry was also entertained and banqueted here on two occasions when he forced his way into the castle. Like the Nanden, the Hokuden today contains exhibition space devoted to material related to the castle, the royal family, and the kingdom's relationship with China.
A pair of buildings to the south of the Nanden, on the opposite side of that hall from the central plaza, served as administrative buildings and spaces for meeting with and entertaining Chinese investiture envoys and officials from Satsuma. The shoin or "study", and kusari-no-ma, as they would have been called in Japanese, were also used by the kings and royal princes, respectively, as their chief study or office.. The room was also used for entertaining Chinese envoys. The shoin appears in the 1713 Ryûkyû-koku yuraiki, but it is unclear how much earlier before that it might have been built. Connected to the Nanden by internal corridors, it contained the sasu-no-ma, the office of the royal scribe or clerk (yûhitsu), who was responsible for producing formal court documents, including those sent to the Emperor of China or the Japanese shogun. The sasu-no-ma was also used by the Crown Prince as a tearoom for receiving guests. The shoin, which has today been reconstructed alongside the Nanden and other structures, also served sometimes as a waiting room or reception room for Chinese investiture envoys.
Kumi udui dance-dramas and other music, dance, and theatre performances were often performed within the Unaa. Prior to 1719, these were known as unaa nu geinô (performing arts of the plaza, or in the garden) and were performed without a stage being constructed. For the first kumi udui performance in 1719, however, Udui bujô (Magistrate of Dance) Tamagusuku Chôkun erected a stage in front of the Nishi nu udun (North Hall, J: Hokuden) within the Unaa. The erection of this sort of temporary stage, known as Ugusuku nu butai (the castle/palace stage), then became a standard feature of entertainments performed for all future visits of Qing investiture envoys. The stage was open on four sides (without curtains or walls blocking the view into the stage), and was accessed by a single short bridge (hashigakari) at the rear of the stage, leading directly towards or into the Nishi nu udun. Jikata (musicians and chanters) sat onstage alongside the dancers and other performers. This later evolved such that large blue curtains were hung along the rear of the stage, hiding the musicians and allowing dancers and actors to enter and exit at various places, at one end of the curtains or the other.
The chief royal residence at the heart of Shuri castle, the structure known as Seiden (正殿, "Main Palace") in Japanese and as Umundasui udun (百浦添御殿, J: Momourasoe udun) in Okinawan, faces and overlooks the unaa. The largest wooden building in the Ryûkyû Kingdom, it is three stories tall, and lavishly painted and otherwise decorated in vermillion and gold, with intricate carvings and other embellishments painted in bold colors. Its construction incorporates Chinese, Japanese, and native Okinawan architectural elements, including among many other features a Japanese karahafu gabled arch over the entrance, and Chinese-style two-tiered roof modeled upon that of the Chinese Imperial Palace. Over one hundred vertical pillars are incorporated into the structure; though some have suggested this may have been aimed at protecting the structure from earthquakes, others have suggested it was more likely a measure against typhoons.
The Seiden was originally roofed with shingles; this was changed to grey or black ceramic tiles in the 1670s or 1680s, and then to the iconic red terracotta tiles, which were supposedly cheaper to produce, sometime later. Though there was some debate as to how to tile the roof when restoring the castle in the 1980s-90s, planners ultimately decided to use red terracotta tiles, as the castle's history of red tiles had been longer and as red tiles had come to be so widely regarded as an iconic feature of Okinawan architecture. There has also been some debate as to whether certain portions of the facade or pillars were painted black or red, and historical sources are unclear as to this point. Though restoration efforts in the 1980s-90s originally began with the intention of painting these sections black, reports from repair efforts in the 1920s-30s revealed that earlier layers of red had been found when stripping down the pillars (in order to repaint them) at that time.
From the time of its reconstruction in the early 1990s until its destruction in an Oct 2019 fire, the Seiden was the largest wooden building in Okinawa prefecture. Sadly, regulations did not require a structure of its size and character to have a built-in sprinkler system; this, combined with the inaccessibility of the site and the early morning outbreak of the fire, contributed to the ultimate outcome of the structure burning to the ground before firefighters could get the fire under control.
Two stone dragon pillars, roughly three meters in height, flank the central stair of the Seiden; these, like just about everything on the grounds today, are reconstructions, though pieces of the pre-1945 pillars are now housed at the Okinawa Prefectural Museum. While most elements of the castle's design reflects Chinese, Korean, and Japanese influence, these dragon pillars resemble not those found anywhere in East Asia, but rather, a form distinctive of Ryûkyûan architecture, and perhaps bearing connections to elements seen in palaces and temples of Cambodia and Thailand, two of the many regions with which Ryûkyû traded heavily in the 14th-16th centuries. Dragons could also be found carved into and painted onto handrails, ceiling beams, and pillars throughout the structure. A particularly large dragon, made of glazed jôyachi pottery and some metalwork elements, was first installed above the karahafû main entrance of the Main Hall in 1682, being produced at that time by Ryukyuan craftsman Hirata Tentsû. The "porch" area immediately under the karahafu was redesigned as part of renovations in 1768 to take on the four-pillar (three ma) appearance that was later restored in the 1992 postwar reconstruction.
Though palaces in China, in accordance with the principles of Chinese geomancy, generally face south, those same principles were applied to Okinawa with the result that it was deemed most appropriate for the Seiden to face, not south, but west. It does so with the mountains at its back, facing the port of Naha, it being believed that dragon lines connect the two points, the palace sitting on a spot which is a source of energy, which then flows down to the harbor. Though Ryukyuan sources explaining this westerly facing have not been found, having the members of the court face east as they faced the throne may have helped heighten the association of the king with the sun (which rises in the east) and with nirai kanai, the mythical origin of the gods, somewhere east across the seas; multiple Chinese investiture envoys suggested that the westerly facing was an act of propriety and loyalty towards China.
The first floor, called the shicha-gui (下庫理) in Okinawan, was mainly used for government matters, and for more public rituals and ceremonies in which the king himself participated A series of sliding doors at the center of the front of the building opened directly onto the main audience chamber, or usasuka (御差床), above which (on the second floor) was the throne room. A throne sat here as well, where the king would sit to preside over government business, formal audiences and various rituals. Seats to his sides were reserved for the queen, their children, and royal grandchildren. The vermillion pillars to both sides of the throne were adorned with paintings of gold dragons and multi-colored clouds; hanging scroll paintings of kirin and phoenixes flanked the throne as well.
A narrow staircase behind the throne led directly to the throne room above, allowing the king, queen, and other top-ranking royals and officials to make their appearance traveling directly from the throne room to the audience chamber. A system of ropes and bells were used to communicate between the two floors. This system was also used to communicate between the governmental, administrative, and otherwise "outer," men's spaces such as the kinjû-tsumesho, ochanizume hallway, and suzuhiki hallway, and on the other side, the "inner" women's spaces and kugani udun.
The second floor was called the ufugui (大庫理), and was the site of more private rituals and ceremonies performed only amongst the royalty and court ladies. It contained the throne room, but was largely a women's space. The throne room itself (also called usasuka like the audience chamber below) had high ceilings and was decorated lavishly in gold and vermillion, as was the entire Seiden, inside and out. Two dragon pillars, painted gold, flank the throne, a Chinese-style chair elaborately carved, lacquered, and gilded, with mother-of-pearl inlay design. As part of the restoration of the castle in 1992, master lacquerware artist Maeda Kôin recreated this throne based on portraits of King Shô Shin and other sources, a project which took about two years. The dais upon which the throne sat resembled that of a Buddha statue, and was adorned with carvings of grape vine and squirrel designs. Some other elements of the decor featured gold inlay in black lacquered wood. Plaques given as gifts to the king by Chinese Emperors, bearing inscriptions of the Emperors' own calligraphy, adorn the throne room, where various more private rituals, as well as royal banquets, were held. As no photos or thorough descriptions of these plaques survived the war, these (like much else in the castle) were recreated based on research in Chinese imperial archives and the expertise of historical experts. Various objects would be brought out for rituals, including incense, candle-stands in the form of dragons, cedars, decorative golden flowers, and paintings of Confucius.
For certain ceremonies, including New Year's celebrations and those occasions when the king formally dispatched a missive to the Chinese Emperor, the throne (御轎椅, O: uchuui) would be moved forward, and shutters on the front of the castle opened, so that the king would look down from under the karahafu gable upon the courtiers gathered in the unaa.
A room in the southeast corner of the second floor known as osen mikocha was used for personal private devotions to the Ryukyuan deities, and for certain religious rituals overseen by the kikoe-ôgimi (high priestess). It contained an altar known as utuku (御床) where the castle's hearth deity was enshrined, and where new nyokan (priestess-officials) were confirmed in their appointments.
The third floor was not intended for active use or habitation, but only for architectural purposes including ventilation.
Beyond the Seiden lay a series of nine or so rooms/buildings which constituted the Ouchibara, the private residential areas of the palace. It housed the king and his immediate family (including both royal princesses, and royal princes who had not yet come of age), as well as the various queens and concubines to the king; the king's mother and grandmother; wetnurses to the king, princes, and/or princesses; and roughly one hundred additional court ladies. These court ladies were divided into two main groups: one, the usuba gufuukuu 御側御奉公, were ladies-in-waiting who came from elite families (often of some relation to the royal family) and who were in service to the queen or royal concubines; the other, known as gusukunchu (城人, lit. "people of the palace/castle"), handled a wide range of palace business. The gusukunchu were selected from families from Naha or Shuri or from elsewhere in the kingdom, and helped look after the king and other members of the royal family.
In addition to handling a variety of other responsibilities pertaining to the operation of the palace, the care of the royal family, and so forth, women of the Ouchibara also spent much time making thread, weaving cloth, and sewing garments; these included clothing for themselves, members of the royal family, and others, made from a variety of materials including bashôfu and karamushi, among others.
The king and other members of the royal family were the only men permitted in this portion of the palace. Women used the Shukujunmon or the Nakamon attached to the kitchens (Yuinchi, 寄満) to come in and out of the ouchibara.
Four of the buildings which constituted the Ouchibara were organized around an open space directly behind the Seiden, known as the Kushi-nu-unaa, or "rear garden" (後之御庭). These included the Yosoeden (世添殿), West Storehouse (Nishi-no-tôgura, 西之当蔵), and court ladies' sleeping quarters (nyokan kyoshitsu, 女官居室). The Yosoeden was the chief residence of the queen, and the center of administration of the Ouchibara.
To the south of the Yosoeden, a door called the Saekimon (左掖門) or Kurashin-ujo (暗シン御門), located on the southern end of the Seiden, led from the Seiden into the Kugani-udun (黄金御殿), a two-story area containing living rooms and bedrooms for the king, queen, and queen mother. Behind this (to the east) was a long narrow area known as the Yuinchi, which contained kitchens where chefs and female servants prepared food for the court. Today, these two areas have been reconstructed, with the Kugani-udun hosting an exhibit space, and the Yuinchi serving as vital storage space. Another section of this same wing of the palace, a two-story section containing further living rooms, was known as the Niikee-udun (二階御殿); it connected into a small garden. Several of these buildings associated with the Ouchibara were among the last to be restored following the 1992 restoration of the Main Hall, only being completed in early 2019, less than a year before being destroyed or severely damaged in a major fire on 31 October 2019.
Deeper into the palace, to the east beyond the rear garden, were additional buildings such as the Yohokoriden (世誇殿) and Kanegura (金蔵); in the deepest portion of the palace, beyond the Hakuginmon gate, lay a space known as the shinbyôden (寝廟殿), and a viewing tower known as the Higashi-no-azana. The Yohokoriden was the chief residence of royal princesses, but on the occasion of a king's death, the Crown Prince's accession ceremonies were held here. Meanwhile, the king's body would be carried into the shinbyôden via the hakuginmon ("Silver Gate," 白銀門), and would be laid there in state for a period.
- Inoue, Munekazu. Nihon no Meijô (日本の名城, "Famous Castles of Japan"). Yuzankaku Publishing, 1992.
- Kerr, George. Okinawa: The History of an Island People. Revised Edition. Tokyo: Tuttle Publishing, 2000.
- Kokuei Okinawa Kinen Kôen (lit. "National Okinawa Memorial Park") Official Website. 2004. Accessed 20 January 2010.
- "Shuri-jô." Okinawa konpakuto jiten (沖縄コンパクト事典, "Okinawa Compact Encyclopedia"). Ryukyu Shimpo. 1 March 2003. Accessed 16 January 2010.
- Turnbull, Stephen. The Samurai Capture a King: Okinawa 1609. Oxford: Osprey Press, 2009.
- Technically, it is the ruins and the site below and around the rebuilt castle which are recognized by UNESCO, which does not consider reconstructions for World Heritage Site status. The reconstructed castle sits some 70cm higher above the ground than the original, in order to protect the ruins. Gallery labels, Shuri castle.
- Kerr. p50.
- Uezato Takashi 上里隆史, “Ko-Ryūkyū ki ni okeru Shurijō no yōsō to hensen” 「古琉球における首里城の様相と返遷」, in Shurijō o toku 首里城を解く, eds. Takara Kurayoshi 高良倉吉 and Shimamura Kōichi 島村幸一, Tokyo: Bensei shuppan (2021), 64.
- Uezato, 64-65.
- Uezato, 65-67.
- Uezato, 67-68.
- Matayoshi Shinzô 又吉真三, "Shurijô ha Ryûkyû kenchiku bunka no shûtaisei" 「首里城は琉球建築文化の集大成’, Shurijô fukugen charity tokubetsu kôen 首里城復元チャリティ特別公演 (Naha: Kudaka Shôkichi geinô kikaku 久高将吉芸能企画, 1987), 104-105.
- Matayoshi, 105.; "Ankokuzan jukaboku no kihi," Okinawa Compact Encyclopedia, Ryukyu Shimpo, 1 March 2003.
- Gregory Smits, Maritime Ryukyu, University of Hawaii Press (2019), 93-94.
- Kerr. p97.
- Though some sources have indicated there was confusion, during the reconstruction of the palace in the 1990s as to which direction the dragons should face, pre-war photos clearly show the dragons facing inwards, towards the staircase and towards one another. Kikuchi Yuko, Japanese Modernisation and Mingei Theory, Routledge Curzon (2004), 146. In the end, today, they once again stand facing one another.
- Kerr. p109.
- Kadekawa, Manabu. Okinawa Chanpurû Jiten (沖縄チャンプルー事典, "Okinawa Champloo Encyclopedia"). Tokyo: Yamakei Publishing, 2001. p54.
- Kerr. p310.
- Kerr. pp307-328.
- "Shurijô no rekishi," Ryukyu Shimpo, 1 Nov 1992.
- Okinawa Compact Encyclopedia.
- 「二重扉」, 「三重扉」 Gallery labels, Tamaudun.
- Loo, Tze M. “Shuri Castle’s Other History: Architecture and Empire in Okinawa.” The Asia-Pacific Journal: Japan Focus 41 (12 Oct 2009).
- "Shurijô zenshô - Saiken e no michisuji"「首里城全焼 再建への道筋」, Gendai kôron 現代公論 (Spring 2020), 12-13.
- "Beni no ugushiku"「紅の御城(うぐしく)へ」, Momoto Special Issue: Shuri, Ryûkyû no miyako o aruku モモト 別冊：首里・琉球の都をあるく (2013/8), 52.
- Mire Koikari, “Rethinking Okinawa and Okinawan Studies: Three Perspectives. 40 Years since Reversion: Negotiating the Okinawan Difference in Japan Today," The Journal of Asian Studies 76:3 (August 2017): 796.
- The Normal School developed out of a Kaiwa denshûsho established in 1880. It was renamed Okinawa shihan gakkô in 1943. On 31 March 1945, the 32nd Army ordered the formation of a local Imperial Blood & Iron Corps (Tekketsu kinnôtai) made up of male students from the school. Two months later, as the 32nd Army fled south to Mabuni in late May 1945, some of the students traveled with them. Orders were issued on June 19 to disband the Corps, but many students died even after these orders were issued. Explanatory plaques on-site outside the 32nd Army Headquarters tunnel entrance at Shurijo Castle Park.
- "Beni no ugushiku," 53.
- Interview with Matayoshi, 107.
- Construction began in March 1944, but the underground headquarters was actually only used for a brief period in 1945. The 32nd Army began using it as their primary headquarters in March 1945. Some 1,000 officers, soldiers, student conscripts (the Iron & Blood Corps), and civilians came to live together in the underground headquarters at that time. However, only two months later, on May 22, 1945, the military command decided to withdraw to Mabuni in the south of the island, as a stalling tactic to attempt to delay any potential Allied invasion of mainland Japan. Much of the rooms and tunnels were intentionally caved-in as the army abandoned the headquarters on May 27. Allied forces gained control of Shuri on May 31. Explanatory plaques, Shurijô Castle Park.
- The civilian government of Okinawan elected representatives governing alongside the US military government during the Occupation.
- Okahashi, Junko (2018) "Significance of reconstructed built-heritage after wartime destruction: Restitution of identity? New role in the subsequent society?" In: International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS) 19th General Assembly and Scientific Symposium "Heritage and Democracy", 13-14th December 2017, New Delhi, India, 2.
- "Shurijô fukugen no keii" 首里城復元の経緯, Ryukyu Shimpo, 1 Nov 1992.
- Taira Hiromu 平良啓、Takara Kurayoshi 高良倉吉, Fukushima Kiyoshi 福島清, Shurijô handobukku 首里城ハンドブック、Naha: Shurijô kôen tomo no kai 首里城公園友の会 (1998), pp102-103.
- Quercus salicina, J: Urajirogashi
- "Shurjiô Q&A," "Shurijô o tsukutta takumi," Ryukyu Shimpo, Nov 1, 1992.
- "Beni no ugushiku," 57.
- "Hôdô shashin shû Shurijô" 報道写真集・首里城, 30.
- Uezu Yasuyuki, "The Path towards the Restoration of Shurijo Castle," n.d., 7.
- "Hôdô shashin shû Shurijô" 報道写真集・首里城, Okinawa Times (2019), n.p.
- "Hôdô shashin shû Shurijô," 34.
- "首里城火災、焼失した所蔵品393点のリスト初公表 被害の半数超は漆器," Okinawa Times, 8 Dec 2019.
- "首里城正殿 2026年までに完成 政府が工程表決定 22年中に本格着工," Okinawa Times, 27 March 2020.
- Turnbull. p44.
- Akamine, "The Ryukyu Kingdom," 87-88.
- And, perhaps, in the interests of facing towards China, as the center and source of Confucian virtue and civilization.
- "Shurijô no Q&A," Ryukyu Shimpo, 1 Nov 1992.
- "Shisetsu annai: Keiseimon." Shuri Castle Park Official Website.
- "Shisetsu annai: Uekimon." Shuri Castle Park Official Website. Originally built in the 15th century, the gatehouse was dismantled in the 1920s-30s; what remained of it was destroyed in 1945 but was then restored in 2000. Plaques on-site.
- Plaques on-site.
- "Shisetsu annai: Nishi no Azana." Shuri Castle Park Official Website.
- Plaque at the former site of the Chûzanmon.; Uho Tomoki 宇保朝輝, "Ima ha naki Chûzanmon" 今はなき中山門, Fee nu kaji 南ぬ風 50 (2019/1-3), 9.
- Plaques on-site at Shureimon.
- Mark McNally, presentation at "Interpreting Parades and Processions of Edo Japan" symposium, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 11 Feb 2013.
- Chan, Ying Kit. “A Bridge between Myriad Lands: The Ryukyu Kingdom and Ming China (1372-1526).” Thesis, National University of Singapore, 2010, 73. http://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/20602.
- "Ryûkyû shikki" 琉球漆器, Fee nu kaji 南ぬ風 3 (2007/4-6), 4.
- Smits, Maritime Ryukyu, 140.
- Plaques on-site at Aijô-ufumichi.
- "Shisetsu annai: Kankaimon." Shuri Castle Park Official Website.
- Plaques on-site at the Kankaimon.
- "Shisetsu annai: Kyûkeimon." Shuri Castle Park Official Website.
- This and seven others of Hôsui's Okinawa paintings are now held by the Museum of the Imperial Collections (Sannomaru shôzôkan) in Tokyo.
Takashina Erika 高階絵里加. "Yamamoto Hôsui no Okinawa hômon ni kansuru shiron" 山本芳翠の沖縄訪問に関する試論. Bijutsushi 144:2 (Mar 1998). pp141-142.
- Earth Exhibit of Ryukyu Kingdom. Ryûfûan Hawaii. 2010. p12.
- Gallery label, Fûjukan Museum, University of the Ryukyus.
- Plaque near Ryûhi / Zuisenmon stairs.
- Plaque outside of Kyûkeimon.
- Plaque at Rôkokumon.
- "Shisetsu annai: Rôkokumon." Shuri Castle Park Official Website.
- "Shisetsu annai: hieidai." Shuri Castle Park Official Website.
- "Shisetsu annai: Kôfukumon." Shuri Castle Park Official Website.
- Also known as Madanmui gusuku and Kunda gusuku. Amidst the shift from the First to the Second Shô Dynasty following the death of King Shô Toku in 1469, Toku's queen and heir, along with the heir's wet nurse, were slaughtered at Madanmui by forces loyal to the new king Shô En, and buried there. Smits, Maritime Ryukyu, 122-124.
- "Shisetsu annai: Kyô no uchi." Shuri Castle Park Official Website.
- "Hôdô shashin shû Shurijô" 報道写真集・首里城, Okinawa Times (2019), 37.
- "Shisetsu annai: Keizusa / Yômotsuza." Shuri Castle Park Official Website.; Explanatory plaques, Shurijô Castle Park.
- "Shisetsu annai: Hôshinmon." Shuri Castle Park Official Website. The three-roofed, three-gated form of the Hôshinmon dates to its rebuilding following the 1709 fire. Watanabe Miki 渡辺美季, "Ryûkyû Shuri no zu, Ryûkyû Naha zu: Koga rekishi hakubutsukan zô Takami Senseki kankei shiryô yori" 「琉球首里ノ図・琉球那覇図ー古河歴史博物館蔵 鷹見泉石関係資料より」, Tôkyô daigaku shiryôhensanjo fuzoku gazô shiryô kaiseki sentaa tsûshin 東京大学史料編纂所附属画像史料解析センター通信 90 (Oct 2020), p10.
- "Shisetsu annai: Unaa." Shuri Castle Park Official Website.
- Ukimichi no nazo 浮道のなぞ, Fee nu kaji 南ぬ風 36 (2015), 9.
- "Shisetsu annai: Nanden / Bandokoro." Shuri Castle Park Official Website.
- Gallery label, "Okushoin teien," Shurijo Castle Park.
- "Shisetsu annai: Hokuden." Shuri Castle Park Official Website.
- "Shisetsu annai: shoin / kusari no ma." Shuri Castle Park Official Website.; plaques on-site in Shuri castle.
- 「よみがえれ、首里城」、Coralway, Nov/Dec 2020, 16.
- Gallery labels, Okinawa Prefectural Museum, August 2013.
- "Shurijo Castle and Performing Arts," exhibition pamphlet, National Theater Okinawa, October-December 2020.
- The palace is referred to in some documents as Momourasoe udun, or the Palace (udun) ruling or governing (soe) all the many various towns (momo ura). Akamine Mamoru, Lina Terrell (trans.), Robert Huey (ed.), The Ryukyu Kingdom: Cornerstone of East Asia, University of Hawaii Press (2017), 85.
- Kakazu Hitosa 嘉数仁然, "Katte ni Shuri kentei! kaisetsu hen" 勝手に首里検定！解説編, Momoto Special Issue: Shuri, Ryûkyû no miyako o aruku モモト 別冊：首里・琉球の都をあるく (2013/8), 66.
- "首里城火災で損害賠償を請求するよう求め住民訴訟｜NHK 沖縄県のニュース," NHK News Web, 16 Aug 2021.
- Prior to the 1890s, these dragon pillars are believed to have stood facing one another; however, evidence from the late 1890s and early 20th century show that by that time they had been turned to both face forward. According to conventional wisdom, this had been done mischievously by members of the Kumamoto Garrison. When the Seiden was reconstructed in the early 1990s, these dragon pillars were once again placed so as to face one another. Interview with Matayoshi, 108. As might be expected, however, individuals interviewed at the opening of the restored castle expressed that they remembered their parents or grandparents telling them that before the war the dragons had faced forward. Interview with Kinjô Mutsuhide 金城睦秀. "Shurijô fukugen watashi mo mimashita" 首里城復元 私も見ました. Ryukyu Shimpo, 3 Nov 1992.
- These central stairs took on a fan (J: suehiro) shape when the Main Hall was rebuilt following the 1709 fire. Watanabe Miki 渡辺美季, "Ryûkyû Shuri no zu, Ryûkyû Naha zu: Koga rekishi hakubutsukan zô Takami Senseki kankei shiryô yori" 「琉球首里ノ図・琉球那覇図ー古河歴史博物館蔵 鷹見泉石関係資料より」, Tôkyô daigaku shiryôhensanjo fuzoku gazô shiryô kaiseki sentaa tsûshin 東京大学史料編纂所附属画像史料解析センター通信 90 (Oct 2020), p10.
- "Shisetsu annai: Seiden." Shuri Castle Park Official Website.
- Gallery labels, 「首里城を支えた人と技術」, Shuri castle.
- Watanabe Miki 渡辺美季, "Ryûkyû Shuri no zu, Ryûkyû Naha zu: Koga rekishi hakubutsukan zô Takami Senseki kankei shiryô yori" 「琉球首里ノ図・琉球那覇図ー古河歴史博物館蔵 鷹見泉石関係資料より」, Tôkyô daigaku shiryôhensanjo fuzoku gazô shiryô kaiseki sentaa tsûshin 東京大学史料編纂所附属画像史料解析センター通信 90 (Oct 2020), p10.
- Kitahara Shûichi. A Journey to the Ryukyu Gusuku 琉球城紀行。 Naha: Miura Creative, 2003. p11.
- "首里城にある「書」のヒミツ." 目からウロコの琉球・沖縄史 blog, 14 April 2007.
- Yasuyuki Uezu, "The Path towards the Restoration of Shurijo Castle," n.d., 6.
- Explanatory plaque, "Osen mikocha," Shuri castle.
- Gallery labels, "Women of the Ouchibara," Shuri castle.
- The Shinbyôden and Yosoeden were first built in 1753. Gallery labels, Tamaudun.