Spring and Autumn Annals

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  • Chinese/Japanese: 春秋 (Chūnqiū / Shunjuu)

The "Spring and Autumn Annals" are a history of the state of Lu from 722-481 BCE. One of the Five Classics of the Four Books & Five Classics which comprise the Confucian classics, the Annals are considered the first accurate chronological history to be written in China.

The text is traditionally attributed to Confucius himself, but this attribution is generally not accepted in scholarship.


  • Arai Hakuseki, Joyce Ackroyd (trans.), Told Round a Brushwood Fire, University of Tokyo Press (1979), 285n108.