Hayashi Fukusai

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  • Born: 1800
  • Died: 1859
  • Titles: Daigaku-no-kami, Shikibu shôfu,
  • Other Names: 林韑 (Hayashi Akira)
  • Japanese: 復斎 (Hayashi Fukusai)

Hayashi Fukusai was head of the Hayashi family of Confucian scholar in service to the Tokugawa shogunate. He is known for his participation in the compilation of the Tsûkô ichiran (a compilation of Tokugawa diplomatic/foreign relations records) and for translation work and other activities relating to the shogunate's engagement with representatives of Western powers in the 1850s. Fukusai played a prominent role in the reception of Commodore Perry in 1854 as Ôsetsukakari (official in charge of reception), was one of four Japanese officials to sign the 1854 Convention of Kanagawa, and continued to play an active role after the signing of the Convention in negotiating the details of its terms.

Fukusai served in a number of positions within the shogunate over the course of his career, from sakite-gashira to Nishinomaru Rusui, ...

His son Hayashi Ôkei succeeded Fukusai as head of the Hayashi family, and contributed to the compilation of the Tsûkô ichiran zokushû, an extension of the original project covering the period from 1829 to 1851.


  • Miyagi Eishô 宮城栄昌, Ryûkyû shisha no Edo nobori 琉球使者の江戸上り, Tokyo: Daiichi Shobô (1982), 1-2.
  • Ishin Shiryô Kôyô 維新史料綱要, vol 1 (1937).