Fujiwara Seika

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Fujiwara Seika was a Confucian scholar of the late 16th to early 17th centuries.

He met with a Korean embassy at Daitoku-ji in 1590, and is said to have learned much about Neo-Confucianism from them.[1]

He later was one of the main teachers of Hayashi Razan, the first of a series of Hayashi clan Confucian advisors to the Tokugawa shoguns.

Seika is also said to have played a significant role in the development of the kunten marks used to render kanbun (Classical Chinese) legible for Japanese readers. This came after he spent some time in Yamakawa in Satsuma province, where he studied the Bunshi-ten marks developed by Nanpo Bunshi.[2]


  1. Doyoung Park, "A New Perspective on the Korean Embassy (Chôsen Tsûshinshi): The View from the Intellectuals in Tokugawa Japan," Studies in Asia Series IV, 3:1 (2013), 13-14.
  2. "Satsunan gakuha," Shimazu-ke ga hagukunda bunka, Shôkoshûseikan official website.