Emperor Huizong of Yuan

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Emperor Huizong of Yuan, also known as Toghon Temur, was the last emperor of China's Yuan Dynasty.

He was thirteen years old when he took the throne. His advisors and high government ministers implemented policies meant to restore the policy positions of the beginning of Mongol rule, including a dramatic decrease in government spending, as a measure to combat rampant inflation, as well as strengthening policies forbidding the intermingling of Chinese and Mongols, despite the fact that countless people were already intermarried or of mixed blood by this time.

The latter years of Huizong's reign, beginning in the 1350s, saw numerous rebellions and uprisings against Yuan control. In the end, a group of rebels led by Zhu Yuanzhang managed to overthrow the Mongols, and established a new dynasty: the Ming.


  • Valerie Hansen, The Open Empire, New York: W.W. Norton & Company (2000), 365-367.