A low-ranking official within the Osaka city government, Ôshio had been educated in a particular strain of Confucian thought that emphasized righteous individual action. Outraged by the shogunate's failures to provide for people during the Tenpô famine in 1837, he led a large number of Osaka townspeople in an uprising. Fully one-quarter of the city was destroyed before the rebellion was suppressed by the authorities. Ôshio was killed in the process.
- Andrew Gordon, A Modern History of Japan, Oxford University Press (2013), 54.