Changes

From SamuraiWiki
Jump to navigationJump to search
Line 28: Line 28:  
Okinawans continued to experience discrimination from the Japanese in Hawaiʻi throughout this period, however, being regarded as less civilized, less educated, backwards, or even simply as not being Japanese. Actual circumstances of poverty, violence, and lesser education among the Okinawan community only added to the stereotypes. Nakamura Gongorô, leader of the Okinawan community in Los Angeles in the period, wrote in 1925 that not only were Okinawans generally less educated than their Japanese brethren, but that they were often not even aware of the rude behaviors and uncultured speech which invited such derision, and thus did not even know to be ashamed of themselves. Another writer noted in 1928 that even when Japanese and Okinawans received the same pay, Okinawans ate, dressed, and lived poorer lives, and yet also did not accumulate greater (or any) savings. Others noted an extent of violence, gambling, bootlegging and the like in the Okinawan community far exceeding that in the Japanese community.
 
Okinawans continued to experience discrimination from the Japanese in Hawaiʻi throughout this period, however, being regarded as less civilized, less educated, backwards, or even simply as not being Japanese. Actual circumstances of poverty, violence, and lesser education among the Okinawan community only added to the stereotypes. Nakamura Gongorô, leader of the Okinawan community in Los Angeles in the period, wrote in 1925 that not only were Okinawans generally less educated than their Japanese brethren, but that they were often not even aware of the rude behaviors and uncultured speech which invited such derision, and thus did not even know to be ashamed of themselves. Another writer noted in 1928 that even when Japanese and Okinawans received the same pay, Okinawans ate, dressed, and lived poorer lives, and yet also did not accumulate greater (or any) savings. Others noted an extent of violence, gambling, bootlegging and the like in the Okinawan community far exceeding that in the Japanese community.
   −
Some events and phenomena helped Okinawans maintain, or regain, confidence and pride, however. In 1927, Admiral [[Kanna Kenwa]] visited Hawaiʻi; he was an Okinawan who not only successfully became an admiral in the [[Imperial Japanese Navy]], but also served as captain of the ''Katori'' which carried Crown Prince Akihito to Europe on a tour in 1921, making him an impressive example of success, and a source of pride. Iha Fuyû's lectures in 1928 contributed to Okinawan pride as well, as he presented research indicating that the Okinawans were of Japanese ethnic stock, and that the Okinawan language, rather than being an inferior dialect, a form of "bad Japanese," in fact developed out of the same linguistic origins as the Japanese language, making Okinawan a very valuable tool for researching ancient Japanese. Beyond these individual and scattered incidents, several local groups began in [[1908]] to publish periodicals aimed at educating their fellow Okinawans, and many members of the community began to individually seek greater education. A group called the ''Showa Gakuyukai'', formed in 1923, likewise was dedicated to encouraging and supporting education for Okinawans; it published a regular journal, called ''Manabi no Tomo'' ("Friend of Learning"), and held lecture meetings in rural areas such as Waipahu and Kahaluu. Twelve Okinawan students graduated from Hawaiʻi public high schools in 1927, and in 1929, Edward Kushi of Maui became the first Okinawan to graduate from the University of Hawaiʻi. Within the next few years, a number of Okinawans were actively attending universities in Hawaiʻi and on the US mainland, including medical schools, normal schools, and schools of nursing and dentistry.
+
Some events and phenomena helped Okinawans maintain, or regain, confidence and pride, however. In 1927, Admiral [[Kanna Kenwa]] visited Hawaiʻi; he was an Okinawan who not only successfully became an admiral in the [[Imperial Japanese Navy]], but also served as captain of the ''Katori'' which carried Crown Prince Hirohito to Europe on a tour in 1921, making him an impressive example of success, and a source of pride. Iha Fuyû's lectures in 1928 contributed to Okinawan pride as well, as he presented research indicating that the Okinawans were of Japanese ethnic stock, and that the Okinawan language, rather than being an inferior dialect, a form of "bad Japanese," in fact developed out of the same linguistic origins as the Japanese language, making Okinawan a very valuable tool for researching ancient Japanese. Beyond these individual and scattered incidents, several local groups began in [[1908]] to publish periodicals aimed at educating their fellow Okinawans, and many members of the community began to individually seek greater education. A group called the ''Showa Gakuyukai'', formed in 1923, likewise was dedicated to encouraging and supporting education for Okinawans; it published a regular journal, called ''Manabi no Tomo'' ("Friend of Learning"), and held lecture meetings in rural areas such as Waipahu and Kahaluu. Twelve Okinawan students graduated from Hawaiʻi public high schools in 1927, and in 1929, Edward Kushi of Maui became the first Okinawan to graduate from the University of Hawaiʻi. Within the next few years, a number of Okinawans were actively attending universities in Hawaiʻi and on the US mainland, including medical schools, normal schools, and schools of nursing and dentistry.
    
Okinawans in this period also began to form strongly Okinawan congregations for both Buddhist and Christian worship. The Jikôen Temple, which remains today a major center for Okinawan cultural activities in Honolulu, was founded in 1935, while the Christian Reimei Kyôkai (Church of the Dawn) was established in Palama around the same time.
 
Okinawans in this period also began to form strongly Okinawan congregations for both Buddhist and Christian worship. The Jikôen Temple, which remains today a major center for Okinawan cultural activities in Honolulu, was founded in 1935, while the Christian Reimei Kyôkai (Church of the Dawn) was established in Palama around the same time.
contributor
26,692

edits

Navigation menu