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Though workers who returned from Hawaii spoke of the tough conditions, they also brought back with them considerable earnings, and began to buy small plots of land, and to build themselves nice houses. The numbers of Okinawans in Hawaii grew quickly therafter, with 262 arriving in [[1904]], 1,233 in [[1905]], and an astonishing 4,467 in [[1906]], a number which represented the peak of Okinawan immigration. More than 8,500 Okinawans were resident in the Territory of Hawaii by [[1908]]. A number of factors contributed to the desire to emigrate from Okinawa, including the hope for sizable earnings to send home or to return with; draft dodging; and the economic recession caused by the excessive cost to the nation of fighting the [[Russo-Japanese War]] (1904-05).
 
Though workers who returned from Hawaii spoke of the tough conditions, they also brought back with them considerable earnings, and began to buy small plots of land, and to build themselves nice houses. The numbers of Okinawans in Hawaii grew quickly therafter, with 262 arriving in [[1904]], 1,233 in [[1905]], and an astonishing 4,467 in [[1906]], a number which represented the peak of Okinawan immigration. More than 8,500 Okinawans were resident in the Territory of Hawaii by [[1908]]. A number of factors contributed to the desire to emigrate from Okinawa, including the hope for sizable earnings to send home or to return with; draft dodging; and the economic recession caused by the excessive cost to the nation of fighting the [[Russo-Japanese War]] (1904-05).
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Okinawan settlers in Hawaii established the first Okinawa Hawaii Association in 1906.<ref>Gallery labels at Toyama Kyuzo Memorial Hall, Kin Village.[https://www.flickr.com/photos/toranosuke/46559092314/sizes/k/] The [[Hawaii United Okinawa Association]] (HUOA) prominent today traces its own history back to 1951.</ref>
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Okinawan settlers in Hawaii established the first Okinawa Hawaii Association in 1906.<ref name=toyama>Gallery labels at Toyama Kyuzo Memorial Hall, Kin Village.[https://www.flickr.com/photos/toranosuke/46559092314/sizes/k/] The [[Hawaii United Okinawa Association]] (HUOA) prominent today traces its own history back to 1951.</ref>
    
The following span of sixteen years or so (1908-1924) has come to be known as the ''yobiyose jidai'', or "era of calling over," with Okinawans already resident in the islands summoning their families to come and join them; the [[Gentlemen's Agreement]] signed between Japan and the United States in [[1907]] limited immigration to those whose relatives were already living in the US (and to a few other similar sets of circumstances, including those who had already previously immigrated to the US and were simply returning, and those who owned land in the US, which applied to extremely few).
 
The following span of sixteen years or so (1908-1924) has come to be known as the ''yobiyose jidai'', or "era of calling over," with Okinawans already resident in the islands summoning their families to come and join them; the [[Gentlemen's Agreement]] signed between Japan and the United States in [[1907]] limited immigration to those whose relatives were already living in the US (and to a few other similar sets of circumstances, including those who had already previously immigrated to the US and were simply returning, and those who owned land in the US, which applied to extremely few).
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==Today==
 
==Today==
Today, Hawaii is home to a great number of Okinawan groups and associations, and cultural activities and events. The State of Hawaii and Okinawa prefecture became "sister states" in 1985, and the Hawaii Okinawa Center opened in 1990.<ref> - gallery labels at Toyama Kyuzo Memorial Hall, Kin Village.[https://www.flickr.com/photos/toranosuke/46559092314/sizes/k/]</ref>
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Today, Hawaii is home to a great number of Okinawan groups and associations, and cultural activities and events. The State of Hawaii and Okinawa prefecture became "sister states" in 1985, and the Hawaii Okinawa Center opened in 1990.<ref name=toyama/>
    
The University of Hawaii at Manoa (UHM) is the only university in the US to boast a dedicated Center for Okinawan Studies, and offers courses in [[Okinawan language]], [[Ryukyu odori|Ryukyuan dance]], and classical Okinawan ''[[sanshin]]'' music. The Manoa-based East-West Center, which has a close relationship with the university but is a separate institution unto itself, has strong relationships with Okinawa in a variety of ways, listing Okinawa specifically (and separately from Japan) as one of the regions in which it engages; among the Center's various activities, it offers extensive fellowships specifically for Okinawan students to come study at UHM. Community organizations such as HUOA, meanwhile, sponsor scholarships for students traveling in the other direction, i.e. for Okinawan-American students from Hawaii to study at the [[University of the Ryukyus]].
 
The University of Hawaii at Manoa (UHM) is the only university in the US to boast a dedicated Center for Okinawan Studies, and offers courses in [[Okinawan language]], [[Ryukyu odori|Ryukyuan dance]], and classical Okinawan ''[[sanshin]]'' music. The Manoa-based East-West Center, which has a close relationship with the university but is a separate institution unto itself, has strong relationships with Okinawa in a variety of ways, listing Okinawa specifically (and separately from Japan) as one of the regions in which it engages; among the Center's various activities, it offers extensive fellowships specifically for Okinawan students to come study at UHM. Community organizations such as HUOA, meanwhile, sponsor scholarships for students traveling in the other direction, i.e. for Okinawan-American students from Hawaii to study at the [[University of the Ryukyus]].
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