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''Ikki'' were often united by a document listing the terms and agreements of their pact, and the names of those entering into the pact; often, the names were listed in a circular manner, to emphasize their equal (non-hierarchical) status within the league. Sometimes, the pact would be sealed by burning the signed agreement and mixing the ashes with water from which each member would then drink, in a ritual called ''ichimi shinsui'' ("one sip of the gods' water").<ref>[[Eiko Ikegami]], ''Bonds of Civility'', Cambridge University Press (2005), 114-115.</ref>
 
''Ikki'' were often united by a document listing the terms and agreements of their pact, and the names of those entering into the pact; often, the names were listed in a circular manner, to emphasize their equal (non-hierarchical) status within the league. Sometimes, the pact would be sealed by burning the signed agreement and mixing the ashes with water from which each member would then drink, in a ritual called ''ichimi shinsui'' ("one sip of the gods' water").<ref>[[Eiko Ikegami]], ''Bonds of Civility'', Cambridge University Press (2005), 114-115.</ref>
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Some of these sects were religiously based, usually formed around a [[Jodo Shinshu|Jôdô]] sect, and came to be called ''[[ikko-ikki|Ikkô-ikki]]''. Some of these leagues, especially the ''Ikkô-ikki'' - some sources refer to them as mobs - challenged the authority of the local ''[[daimyo|daimyô]]'', often resulting in armed conflict. One of the most famous examples of this took place in [[Kaga province]], where the local ''ikki'' managed to overthrow and kick out the [[Togashi clan]] ''[[shugo]]'' of the province, making it for a considerable length of time the only province under commoner/peasant control. The ''Ikkô-ikki'' of the [[Ishiyama Honganji]], based in [[Osaka]], are also famous for successfully withstanding [[siege of Ishiyama Honganji|siege]] by [[Oda Nobunaga]] for as long as ten years before succumbing.
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Some of these sects were religiously based, usually formed around a [[Jodo Shinshu|Jôdo]] sect, and came to be called ''[[ikko-ikki|Ikkô-ikki]]''. The ''Ikkô-ikki'' of the [[Ishiyama Honganji]], based in [[Osaka]], are also famous for successfully withstanding [[siege of Ishiyama Honganji|siege]] by [[Oda Nobunaga]] for as long as ten years before succumbing.
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Not all ''ikki'' were linked by religious affiliation, however. Some, called ''kuni ikki'', were driven by more secular concerns, to challenge the authority of the local ''[[daimyo|daimyô]]'' and seize power for the people. One of the most famous examples of this took place in [[Kaga province]], where the local ''ikki'' managed to overthrow and kick out the [[Togashi clan]] ''[[shugo]]'' of the province, making it for a considerable length of time the only province under commoner/peasant control. Another form of ''ikki'' were known as ''tokusei ikki'', as they demanded debt cancellation (''tokusei'', lit. "virtuous governance") from the shogunate or ''daimyô''.<ref>Gallery labels, National Museum of Japanese History.[https://www.flickr.com/photos/toranosuke/11737450065/sizes/h/]</ref>
    
From the earliest years of the [[Edo period]], the non-religious, non-militarized ''ikki'' - those that were simple associations formed by pacts of ''ichimi shinsui'' - were designated ''totô'' (徒党, political conspirators, faction, cabal, or clique) by the authorities, and were banned.<ref>Ikegami, 129.</ref>
 
From the earliest years of the [[Edo period]], the non-religious, non-militarized ''ikki'' - those that were simple associations formed by pacts of ''ichimi shinsui'' - were designated ''totô'' (徒党, political conspirators, faction, cabal, or clique) by the authorities, and were banned.<ref>Ikegami, 129.</ref>
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