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* ''Other name: Miura Anjin'' (三浦按針)
 
* ''Other name: Miura Anjin'' (三浦按針)
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An English navigator who settled in Japan. He is now famous as the prototype of the hero of James Clavell's quasi-historical novel [[James Clavell's Shogun|''Shogun'']].
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William Adams, also known as Miura Anjin, was an English navigator who settled in Japan. He is now famous as the prototype of the hero of James Clavell's quasi-historical novel [[James Clavell's Shogun|''Shogun'']].
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Adams was pilot of the Dutch ship ''[[Liefde]]'' which arrived at [[Bungo province]] in Kyushu on April 19, [[1600]]. By the order of [[ Tokugawa Ieyasu]], then the chief [[tairo|tairô]] (senior counsellor), Adams was brought to [[Osaka]] as representative of the crew. He had an interview with Ieyasu on May 12<ref>Adams gave this date in a letter to his wife. It is not clear if he was using the Gregorian or the Julian calendar. It seems most likely that as he came on a Dutch ship he would be using the calendar of the log of that ship, presumably the Gregorian one (see http://webexhibits.org/calendars/year-countries.html). This would mean the date he he saw Ieyasu was 1600/3/29 (Japanese calendar). However, England was still using the Julian calendar. If Adams as an Englishman used the Julian calendar, he would have met Ieyasu on 1600/4/10.</ref> and apparently favorably impressed him. After that Adams served Ieyasu in a number of fields, even building him an 8-ton European-style boat. He also served as interpreter and as an agent for the Dutch and English companies. In the same way Adams played a role of no small importance in shaping the position of the bakufu towards Spain, Portugal and the [[Catholic Church]].
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Adams was pilot of the Dutch ship ''[[Liefde]]'' which arrived at [[Bungo province]] in Kyushu on April 19, [[1600]]. By the order of [[Tokugawa Ieyasu]], then the chief ''[[tairo|tairô]]'' (senior counsellor), Adams was brought to [[Osaka]] as representative of the crew. He had an interview with Ieyasu on May 12<ref>Adams gave this date in a letter to his wife. It is not clear if he was using the Gregorian or the Julian calendar. It seems most likely that as he came on a Dutch ship he would be using the calendar of the log of that ship, presumably the Gregorian one (see http://webexhibits.org/calendars/year-countries.html). This would mean the date he he saw Ieyasu was 1600/3/29 (Japanese calendar). However, England was still using the Julian calendar. If Adams as an Englishman used the Julian calendar, he would have met Ieyasu on 1600/4/10.</ref> and apparently favorably impressed him. After that Adams served Ieyasu in a number of fields, even building him an 8-ton European-style boat. He also served as interpreter and as an agent for the [[Dutch East India Company|Dutch]] and [[English East India Company|English]] East India Companies, and played a role of no small importance in shaping the position of the ''bakufu'' towards Spain, Portugal and the [[Catholic Church]].
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Adams dreamed of returning to England, but the government would not let him. He became a ''[[hatamoto]]'' and was given land in the Miura Henmi (三浦逸見) district of [[Sagami province]] (near the mouth of [[Edo Bay]]), along with 80 servants,<ref>Gonnami, Tsuneharu. "[https://circle-prod.library.ubc.ca/bitstream/handle/2429/21181/Images_of_foreigners.pdf?sequence=1 Images of Foreigners in Edo Period Maps and Prints]." Unpublished manuscript. Presentation at symposium "Edo: Past & Present," University of British Columbia, April 1998. p7.</ref> and so was called Miura Anjin (三浦按針), ''anjin'' meaning "pilot." Though he was married to an Englishwoman, he also married a Japanese woman, the daughter of a headman of a post-station, and maintained a concubine in [[Hirado]]. He died of illness in Hirado in [[Hizen province]] (the Dutch, English, and Portuguese all had establishments there) in [[1620]]. There is a grave in Henmi (now [[Yokosuka]] City) said to be his (Anjin-zuka). Following Adams' death, his son continued to trade for a time under the name "Miura Anjin," employing his father's [[shuinsen|red seal trading license]].<ref>[[Marius Jansen]], ''China in the Tokugawa World'', Harvard University Press (1992), 19.</ref>
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Adams dreamed of returning to England, but the government would not let him. He became a ''[[hatamoto]]'' and was given land in the Miura Henmi (三浦逸見) district of [[Sagami province]] (near the mouth of [[Edo Bay]]), along with 80 servants,<ref>Gonnami, Tsuneharu. "[https://circle-prod.library.ubc.ca/bitstream/handle/2429/21181/Images_of_foreigners.pdf?sequence=1 Images of Foreigners in Edo Period Maps and Prints]." Unpublished manuscript. Presentation at symposium "Edo: Past & Present," University of British Columbia, April 1998. p7.</ref> and so was called Miura Anjin (三浦按針), ''anjin'' meaning "pilot." Though he was married to an Englishwoman, he also married a Japanese woman, the daughter of a headman of a post-station, and maintained a concubine in [[Hirado]]. He died of illness in Hirado in [[Hizen province]], where the Dutch, English, and Portuguese all maintained bases, in [[1620]]. There is a grave in Henmi (now [[Yokosuka]] City), called "Anjin-zuka" and said to be his. Following Adams' death, his son continued to trade for a time under the name "Miura Anjin," employing his father's [[shuinsen|red seal trading license]].<ref>[[Marius Jansen]], ''China in the Tokugawa World'', Harvard University Press (1992), 19.</ref>
    
There is a marker on the site of his [[Edo]] (now Tokyo) mansion; the address is Chûô-ku, Nihonbashi Muromachi 1-10-8. Until the beginning of the Shôwa Period (1926-1989) the area was called "Anjin-chô"; there is still an "Anjin-dôri" ("Anjin Street") there. There is also an annual festival in his honor, held in Itô, [[Shizuoka Prefecture]], called ''Anjin Matsuri''.
 
There is a marker on the site of his [[Edo]] (now Tokyo) mansion; the address is Chûô-ku, Nihonbashi Muromachi 1-10-8. Until the beginning of the Shôwa Period (1926-1989) the area was called "Anjin-chô"; there is still an "Anjin-dôri" ("Anjin Street") there. There is also an annual festival in his honor, held in Itô, [[Shizuoka Prefecture]], called ''Anjin Matsuri''.
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