- Chinese/Japanese: 院体画 (yuàn tǐ huà / intaiga)
This style is most strongly associated with the Hanlin Painting Academy (翰林図画院, Hànlín túhuà yuàn), a bureau within the Hanlin Academy, the chief group of scholar-officials in service to the court. The court's maintenance of a set group of official court painters began in the Tang Dynasty, but it was in the Song that this academy became truly set, and canonical, setting the foundations for what would be known as the "Northern School" and "Southern School" of Chinese painting through to today. The Northern School, epitomized by the period under Emperor Huizong (r. 1101-1125) of the Northern Song Dynasty, is known especially for its highly colorful and naturalistic birds and flowers paintings, while the Southern School, developed under his son, Emperor Gaozong (r. 1127-1162) of the Southern Song Dynasty, is known for monochrome ink landscapes. Especially representative of Song dynasty Southern School landscapes are those of Ma Yuan, Xia Gui, and their followers, who employed large areas of void or negative space; thick, angular, outlines; and axe-cut texture effects on the rocks.
Song dynasty paintings in the academic style, including works by Liang Kai, Emperor Huizong, Li Tang, Ma Yuan, and Xia Gui, were profoundly influential in the development of Muromachi period ink painting in 14th century Japan, and works of the Zhe school a century or so later notably influenced the Japanese masters Sesshû and his contemporaries. The Kanô school, which became Japan's canonical "academic" style in the 16th-17th centuries, also owes much to Chinese yuàntǐhuà foundations.
- "Intaiga," JAANUS, 2001.