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  • Kanji: 甲鉄 (Koutetsu), literally "Iron Armored." Later renamed 東 (Azuma), literally "East."
  • Entered Japanese Service: 3 February 1869

Displacement: 1,400 tons[2]
1,535 tons - deep load
Length: 187 feet[3]
Beam: 32 feet 8 inches
Draught: 14 feet 4 inches[4]
Propulsion: Two tubular boilers[5]
Two shaft return connecting rod
1,200 indicated horsepower
Fuel: Coal - 200 tons
Speed: 10.8 knots - both engines[6]
5.8 knots - single engine
Complement: 135
Armament: 1 x 300-pounder Armstrong
2 x 70-pounder Armstrong[7]
Armor: Fore "turret" – 4 ½ inches of iron
Hull – 3 ½ - 4 inches of iron
Aft "turret" - 4 inches of iron

Construction and life in France

  • Name while in service: Sphinx
Naval ensign of the Marine Nationale (French Navy).

A basic plan set for the ironclad.[8]

Service in the Royal Danish Navy

  • Names while in service:
    • Stærkodder (literally "Strong Otter")
    • Olinde
Naval ensign of the Kongelige Danske Marine (Royal Danish Navy).

The ironclad as the Stærkodder in the Royal Danish Navy in 1864.[9]

Service in the Confederate States Navy

  • Name while in service: CSS Stonewall (named for slain Confederate General Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson)
  • Engagement: Pursued by United States warships Sacramento, Niagara, and Kearsarge.
Naval ensign of the Confederate States Navy.

Captain Thomas Jefferson Page
Lieutenant Robert Randolph Carter
Lieutenant George S. Shyrock
Lieutenant George A. Borchert
Lieutenant E. G. Read
Lieutenant Samuel Barron, Jr.
Surgeon Bennett Wood Green
Assistant Surgeon James W. Herty
Paymaster Richard W. Curtis
Engineer William Param Brooks
Engineer William Hutcheson Jackson
Engineer J. C. Klosh
Master William W. Wilkinson
Boatswain John M. Dukehart
Gunner J. B. King
Master’s Mate W. H. Savage
Paymaster’s Clerk William Boynton

The Tower of Belem firing on the United States ships Niagara and Sacramento in Lisbon Harbor.[11]

The ironclad as the CSS Stonewall crossing the Atlantic Ocean.[12]

"Surrender" to Spanish authorities in Cuba

Naval ensign of the Armada Española (Spanish Navy) after 1785.

Spain turns the vessel over to the United States. For a price.

  • Name while in service: Ex-CSS Stonewall
Naval jack of the United States Navy from 4 July 1865 through 3 July 1867.

The ironclad in United States custody in the Washington Navy Yard.[13]

Japan enters the age of the ironclad

  • Names while in service:
    • 甲鉄 (Koutetsu [literally "Iron Armored"])
    • 東 (Azuma [literally "East"])
  • Engagements:
    • 宮古湾海戦 - Miyako Wan Kaisen (Naval Battle of Miyako Bay) March 1869.
    • 函館湾海戦 - Hakodate Wan Kaisen (Naval Battle of Hakodate Bay) 4 through 10 May 1869.
Naval ensign of the 大日本帝國海軍 (Dai Nippon Teikoku Kaigun [Imperial Japanese Navy]) prior to 1889.

The ironclad as the Koutetsu at full sail in port during the late 1860s.[14]

The ironclad as the Koutetsu during the 函館湾海戦 (Hakodate Wan Kaisen [Naval Battle of Hakodate Bay]), June 1869.[15]

The ironclad as the Koutetsu during the 函館湾海戦 (Hakodate Wan Kaisen [Naval Battle of Hakodate Bay]).[16]

The ironclad after being renamed Azuma.[17]


  1. Unless otherwise noted the statistics are from Steensen, Robert Steen. Vore Panserskibe. (Our Armoured Vessels). 1968.
  2. The Official Records of the Union and Confederate Navies, Series II Volume 1, page 267 claims the tonnage to be 900.
  3. ORUCN claims 171' 10"
  4. From ORUCN
  5. ORUCN claims four engines
  6. ORUCN claims "about 13 knots"
  7. ORUCN claims, as of 1865, two 150-pounder Armstrong instead of two 70-pounders
  8. Greene and Massignani. Ironclads at War. Page 202
  9. From the collection of the Orlogsmuseets (Royal Danish Naval Museum).
  10. Evans, Clement Anselm. Confederate Military History. Volume 12.
  11. From Harper's Weekly, 13 May 1865.
  12. Harper's Weekly, 13 May 1865.
  13. From the United States Naval Historical Center.
  14. From the United States Naval Historical Center.
  15. From the United States Naval Historical Center.
  16. From the Illustrated London News, 11 September 1869.
  17. From the United States Naval Historical Center.


  • Evans, Clement Anselm. Confederate military history; a library of Confederate States history. Volume 12. Atlanta, GA: Confederate Publishing Company, 1899.
  • Greene, Jack and Alessandro Massignani. Ironclads at War: The Origin and Development of the Armored Warship, 1854-1891. Pennsylvania: Combined Publishing, 1998.
  • “Japanese Imperial Fleet Attacking the Rebels of Hakodadi.” Illustrated London News, 11 September 1869.
  • Naval War Records Office. Official Records of the Union and Confederate Navies. Series I Volumes 3 (1896), 5 (1897), 12 (1901), 16 (1903), 17 (1903), 22 (1908), 27 (1917). Series II Volumes 1 (1921), 2 (1921), 3 (1922). Washington, D.C.: Government Print. Office, 1894-1922.
  • Steensen, Robert Steen. Vore Panserskibe (Our Armoured Vessels). Copenhagen, Denmark: Marinehistorisk Selskab, 1968. 178-195.
  • “The Confederate Steam Ram ‘Stonewall’ leaving Lisbon Harbor.” Harper’s Weekly, 13 May 1865, p. 301.
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