# Japanese Measurements

Premodern Japanese measurements consisted of the following:

## Length

### Metric Equivalents

- 1
**Rin**(厘) = .0303 cm - 1
**Sun**(寸) = 3.03 cm - 1
**Ata**(咫) = 18 cm - 1
**Shaku**(尺) = 30.3 cm - 1
**Ken**(間) = 1.8182 m^{[1]} - 1
**Jô**(丈) = 3.03 m - 1
**Chô**(町) = 109.9 m - 1
**Ri**(里) = 3,927 m^{[2]} - 1 Traditional
**Ri**(里) = 654.6 m^{[2]}

### Unit Conversions

- 1
**Shaku**(尺) = 10**sun**(寸) - 1
**Jô**(丈) = 10**shaku**(尺) - 1
**Ken**(間) = 6**shaku**(尺) - 1
**Chô**(町) = 60**ken**(間) - 1
**Ri**(里) = 36**chô**(町)^{[2]} - 1 Traditional
**Ri**(里) = 6**chô**(町)^{[2]}

## Area

### Metric Equivalents

- 1
**Gô**(合) = 33cm^{2} - 1
**Bu**(歩) = 1**Tsubo**(坪) = 3.306m^{2} - 1
**Se**(畝) = 99.17m^{2} - 1
**Tan**(反・段) = 991.7m^{2}^{[3]} - 1
**Chô**(町) = 9.917km^{2}^{[3]}

### Unit Conversions

- 1
**Bu**(歩) = 1**tsubo**(坪) = 10**gô**(合) = a 1*ken*x 1*ken*square = 2 tatami mats placed together^{[4]} - 1
**Se**(畝) = 30**bu**(歩) = 30**tsubo**(坪) - 1
**Tan**(反・段) = 10**se**(畝)^{[3]} - 1
**Chô**(町) = 10**tan**(反・段)^{[3]}

## Weight

### Metric Equivalents

- 1
**Momme**(匁) = 3.75g - 1
**Kin**(斤) = 600g^{[5]} - 1
**Kan**(貫) = 3.75kg

### Unit Conversions

- 1
**Kin**(斤) = 160**momme**(匁) - 1
**Kan**(貫) = 1000**momme**(匁) - 1
**Tan**(担) = 100*kin*(斤)^{[6]}

## Volume

### Metric Equivalents

- 1
**Gô**(合) = 180ml - 1
**Shô**or**Masu**(升) = 1.804 liters - 1
**To**(斗) = 18.04 liters - 1
**Koku**(石) = 180.4 liters

### Unit Conversions

- 1
**Shô**or**Masu**(升) = 10**gô**(合) - 1
**To**(斗) = 10**shô**or**masu**(升) - 1
**Hyô**(俵) = 1 "bale" or "bag" of rice = 4**to**(斗) - 1
**Koku**(石) = 10**to**(斗) = 2.5*hyô*(俵)

## References & Notes

- Lu, David.
*Japan: A Documentary History*. Vol. 1. M.E. Sharpe, 2005. Appendix, pI.

- ↑ One
*ken*, sometimes translated as one "bay," was the traditional standard amount of space between a building's pillars. The length of a building is often given in*ken*; the famous Sanjûsangendô, or "Thirty-Three Bays Hall," in Kyoto indeed has thirty-four pillars along its side, resulting in a hall thirty-three "bays" in length. - ↑
^{2.0}^{2.1}^{2.2}^{2.3}The length or distance defined as one*ri*has changed dramatically over time. Though at times (including in the Edo period) it was equivalent to 36*chô*, or roughly 3.9km, in certain earlier periods of history one*ri*was equivalent to six*chô*, or roughly 0.65 km. Meanwhile, in early modern Korea, they used the same character (里, K:*ri*) to refer to a distance roughly 1/10th that of the Japanese*ri*: roughly 400 meters, rather than 4 km. Miyake Riichi,*Edo no gaikô toshi*, Kashima Shuppankai (1990), 71. - ↑
^{3.0}^{3.1}^{3.2}^{3.3}Prior to Toyotomi Hideyoshi decreeing a new standard in 1598, one*tan*was equal to 360*bu*instead of 300*bu*, and was therefore roughly equal to 1,190.4m^{2}instead of 991.7m^{2}. One*chô*was still ten*tan*, making*chô*at that time equal to roughly 11.904km^{2}. In theory, a*tan*of land produced one*koku*of rice, and a*chô*of land produced ten*koku*of rice. - ↑ Arne Kalland,
*Fishing Villages in Tokugawa Japan*, University of Hawaii Press (1995), ix. - ↑ The
*kin*(C:*jīn*) is also commonly known as a "catty" in English-language materials (e.g. "400 catties of copper"). - ↑ The
*tan*is also commonly known as a "picul" in English-language materials.