Espiritu Santo

The Espíritu Santo was a Spanish ship - one of the Manila galleons - which capsized near Shimizu harbor, Tosa province in 1602 while on its way to Acapulco.

While the ship was somehow righted and sailed away from Japan - escaping any potential confiscation of cargo or persecution of the crew as Christians - Captain Alonso de Ulloa and Francisco Maldonado were granted an audience with Tokugawa Ieyasu in Fushimi. The two Spaniards were granted a guarantee of safe passage home, and also a series of red seal ship licenses authorizing future official trade between Japan and Manila.


  • Birgit Tremml-Werner and Dorothée Goetze, "A Multitude of Actors in Early Modern Diplomacy," Journal of Early Modern History 23 (2019), 409.