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KAMAKURA PERIOD

Takezaki Suenaga


1185 - 1333


 

| 1200 | 1225 | 1250 | 1275 | 1300 | 1325 |


1189

June 13 Minamoto Yoshitsune is killed by Fujiwara troops at the Battle of Koromogawa in Mutsu at Yoritomo's instigation. Following Yoshitsune's death, Yoritomo orders the Oshu Fujiwara destroyed.


1190

July 7 Minamoto Yoritomo comes to Kyoto.


1192

April 13 Retired Emperor Go-Shirakawa passes away.

  • Minamoto Yoritomo is appointed Shôgun

  • Zen is reintroduced to Japan from China by the monk Eisai.


    1193

    Minamoto Yoritomo has Noriyori killed at the Shuzenji in Izu.


    1194

    Yoritomo resigns as Shôgun


    1198

    Go-Toba abdicates but continues to rule through Tsuchimikado.


    1199

    February 13 Minamoto Yoritomo is thrown from a horse and dies; he is succeded by Minamoto Yoriie. The Hiki clan assumes guardianship of the new Shôgun.


    1200

    Kajiwara Kagetoki is killed in Sagami by Bakufu troops.


    1203

    October Hôjô Tokimasa orders the murder of Hiki Yoshikazu after the latter plots against the Hôjô family; Tokimasa also kills most of the Hiki clan, as well as Yoriie's son Ichiman. The Hôjô go on to force Yoriie into retirement and replace him with Minamoto Sanetomo.


    1204

  • Minamoto Yoriie, the second Minamoto Shôgun (retired), is assassinated at the Shuzenji.

  • Hiraga Tomomasa, shugo of Kyoto, quells a Taira loyalist uprising in Ise and Iga.


    1205

  • July Hôjô Yoshitoki destroys Hatakeyama Shigetada.

  • Hôjô Tokimasa becomes a monk under pressure from his son and wife and retires to Izu; Hôjô Yoshitoki becomes the new regent.

  • Hôjô Masamura is born


    1207

    Hônen, the founder of the Jôdo sect of Buddhism, is exiled to Tosa. He is allowed to return to Kyoto in 1211.


    1210

    Emperor Tsuchimikado retires in favor of Juntoku.


    1212

    Hônen (b.1133) dies.


    1213

    April 2 Wada Yoshimori rebels against the Bakufu and is defeated by Hôjô Yoshitoki in Sagami.


    1219

    February Minamoto Sanemoto is assasinated at the Tsurugaoka Hachiman Shrine by one of Minamoto Yoriie's sons, the priest Kugyo.


    1219 - 1222

    Hogen Monogatari [tale of the Hogen Era] and Heiji Monogatari [The Tale of the Heiji Era] completed.


    1220

    The Heike Monogatari (the Tale of the Heike) is completed.


    1221

    The Shokyu (Jokyu) Disturbance

  • May Juntoku abdicates.

  • June 6 Retired Emperor Go-Toba rebels against the Kamakura Bakufu.

  • July 5 Go-Toba's forces are defeated at the 3rd Battle of the Uji Bridge by Hôjô Yasutoki; Go-Toba, Juntoku, and Tsuchimikado are all exiled.


    1222

    Nichiren, the founder of the Lotus sect of Buddhism, is born.


    1224

    Hôjô Yasutoki becomes regent following the death of Yoshitoki.


    1225

    Hôjô Masako, the 'Nun Shôgun' (AmaShôgun), dies.


    1226

    January Hôjô Yasutoki establishes a board of councilors (hyojoshu), which becomes the most important body in the Kamakura government.


    1227

    Hôjô Tokiyori is born


    1229

    Hôjô Nagatoki is born


    1232

    Hôjô Yasutoki issues the Joei Code (Joei Shikimoku), , a collection of laws regarding the rule of warrior houses.


    1242

    June Hôjô Yasutoki dies. He is succeded as regent by his grandson Tsunetoki.


    1244

    June Shôgun Fujiwara Yoritsune is removed from office and replaced with his son Yoritsugu.


    1246

  • Hôjô Tokiyori becomes Hôjô Regent

  • The Kagen Coup occurs: Hôjô Tokiyori drives Chancellor Kujo Michiie and Fujiwara Yoritsune from politics.


    1247

    The Hoji War : The Hôjô eliminate the Muira family and further strengthen their hold on Kamakura politics.


    1250

    Hôjô Tokimune is born


    1253
    Dôgen (b.1200), the founder of the Sôtô Zen sect, dies.


    1254

    Tachibana no Narisue compiles the Kokon Chumon Ju [A Collection of Ancient and Modern Tales That I've Heard].


    1256

  • Hôjô Tokiyori's Regency ends

  • Hôjô Nagatoki becomes Regent


    1260

    Nichiren presents his Risshô ankoku ron ('Establishment of the Correct Teaching for the Pacification of the Countyr') to the Bakufu; he is afterwards exiled to Izu Province.


    1263

    The King of Korea (Koryo) sends a diplomatic mission to Japan protesting the depredations of Japanese pirates (wako) on the Korean coast.

    Hôjô Tokiyori dies


    1264

  • Hôjô Nagatoki dies, ending his reign as Hôjô Regent

  • Hôjô Masamura becomes next Hôjô Regent


    1268

    April 18 Hôjô Tokimune replaces Masamura as regent.

    Kublai Khan sends an embassy to Japan, demanding tribute.


    1272

    The Imperial line is officially divided into two branches (Junior and Senior); the Bakufu authorizes this step to curb almost continiuos political in-fighting over succesion issues.


    1273

    Hôjô Masamura dies


    1274

    February 19 The Mongol Empire launches a brief attack on Japan that ends after a single day of fighting, leading some modern scholars to speculate that the invaders intended the action only as a raid.


    1275

    120 deserving warriors are rewarded by the Bakufu for thier services during the first Mongol invasion. Takezaki Suenaga is one of the warriors in attendance


    1276

    Kyushu samurai begin the construction of a defensive wall at Hakata bay in anticipation of further Mongol attacks.


    1278

    Monks from the Enryakuji (Mt. Hiei) riot in Kyoto and clash with Bakufu troops.


    1281

  • May 22 The Mongol Empire sends a second invasion force against Japan.

  • June 9 Mongol forces land on Tsushima.

  • June 14 Mongol forces land on Iki island.

  • June 21 Mongol forces land on Kyushu and fighting begins around Hakata; Mongol and Chinese troops are unable to secure a tenable beachhead.

  • August 12 The second part of the Mongol invasion force arrives from China and joins the camapign.

  • August 15 A typoon scatters the combined Mongol fleet and brings the invasion to a close.


    1282

    The Enkaku-Ji Temple is founded by the Chinese monk Mugaku Sogen


    1284

    Hôjô Tokimune dies, ending his Hôjô Regency

    Hôjô Sadatoki, son of Tokimune, Becomes new regent


    1285

    December The Shimotsuki Disturbance (Shimotsuki no ran) occurs: Adachi Yasumori rebels on Kyushu and is defeated by Taira Yoritsuna.


    1287

    Future emperor Go-Daigo is born


    1293

    May The important Bakufu official Taira Yoritsuna and 90 of his followers are killed by Hôjô Sadatoki's warriors in the Heizen Gate Incident.

    Warrior Takezaki Suenaga commissions the scroll Moko Shurai Ekotoba to proclaim his deeds during the Mongol Invasions


    1301

    Hôjô Sadatoki's regency comes to an end

    Nitta Yoshisada is born


    1304

    Ashikaga Takauji is born


    1305

    June Hôjô Munekata murders Hôjô Tokimura; Munekata is himself murdered soon afterwards (these events are known as the 'Fifth Month Disturbance').


    1316

    Hôjô Takatoki becomes regent


    1318

    Accession of emperor Go-Daigo to the Imperial throne


    1321

    Go-Daigo offically abolishes the Insei system.


    1324

    The Shochu Incident: A plot organized by Go-Daigo against the Bakufu is exposed; the Bakufu elects not to bring charges against Go-Daigo himself.


    1325

    Imagawa Sadayo is born


    1331

    The Genko War

  • September 27 Go-Daigo flees Kyoto with the Imperial Regalia and establishes his court at the Kasagi Temple.

  • October 5 The Bakufu dispatches a large army from Kamakura in response to Go-Daigo's rebellion.

  • October 28 Bakufu forces dispatched from Kyoto capture Kasagi; Go-Daigo is apprehended soon afterwards.

  • November Kusunoki Masashige defends Akasaka (on Mt. Kongo, in Kwatchi) against the Bakufu troops sent from Kamakura.

  • November 20 Akasaka falls; Kusunoki and Prince Morinaga escape and go into hiding.


    1332

    April Go-Daigo is exiled to Oki Island.


    1333

  • Go-Daigo escapes Oki Island with the assistance of Akamatsu Norimura.

  • February 27 Bakufu troops recapture Akasaka from Hirano Shogen. Hirano and his men are executed.

  • March 1 Yoshino is captured by bakufu troops; Prince Morinaga escapes to Mt. Koya.

  • May Ashikaga Takauji arrives from Kamakura, then marches to Tamba and declares for Go-Daigo.

  • June Kusunoki Masashige successfully defends Chihaya castle (Kwatchi) against a Bakufu army.

  • July 7 Hôjô Hidetoki, the military governor of Kyushu, is destroyed by rebellious local families

  • July 5 Forces led by Nitta Yoshisada capture Kamakura; Hôjô Takatoki commits suicide; the Hôjô Shikken comes to an end.


    1334

  • Go-Daigo offically announces his reformist intentions, which become known as the The Kemmu Restoration.

  • Takauji orders the arrest of Prince Morinaga, whom he believed was plotting against him.

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