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MAEDA Gen'i
(Maeda Munehisa, Tokuzen-in)
Oda, Toyotomi retainer
1539-1602
Mimbu-kyô Hôin

Gen'i was a Buddhist priest for Mt. Hiei who entered the service of the Oda sometime before 1570. He went on to serve Toyotomi Hideyoshi and was named his deputy for Kyoto in 1582 (essentially confirming duties Gen'i had held prior to Nobunaga's death). He received a 50,000 koku fief at Takamai in Tamba province and was tasked with laying the groundwork for Fushimi Castle in 1592. He was named one of the Five Bugyô (magistrates) by Hideyoshi before the latter's death. Gen'i was morally opposed to Tokugawa Ieyasu but took no real part in the Sekigahara Campaign. His sons are recorded as having been Christian. Gen'i was evidently no relation to the famous Maeda Toshiie.

MAEDA

The Maeda mon

The Maeda of Owari claimed Fujiwara descent. They rose to prominince under Oda Nobunaga and then Toyotomi Hideyoshi and by 1598 were one of the most powerful families in Japan, controlling most of the Hokuriku region. Although they lost some of their wealth in the wake of the Sekigahara Campaign, they remained powerful into the Edo Period.

Maeda Toshiharu
(Maeda Toshimasa)
Oda retainer
d.1569?

Toshiharu was a minor Owari lord and Oda retainer who held Arako and whose incomes were about 5,000 koku. He retired around 1569, his lands going to his son Toshiie.
Sons: Toshiie, Hidetsugu (d.1585)

Maeda Toshiie
Oda, Toyotomi retainer
1538?-1599
Sakon'e no gon shôshô, Dainogon, Chikugo no kami

Toshiie was born in Arako Village in the Aichi District of Owari province and was the 4th son of Maeda Toshiharu. He entered Oda Nobunaga's service in 1551 as a page and eventually rose to be a commander of samurai. According to one story, he was dismissed for a time from Nobunaga's service after killing another Oda retainer but remained close to his lord. After fighting at Okehazama (1560) and Moribe (1561), we are told, Toshiie won back Nobunaga's favor and was again recognized as a retainer. He fought at Anegawa (1570) and Nagashino (1570) and was given a fief in Echizen Province in 1575 (Fuchû, 30,000 koku), becoming known as one of the so-called Echizen Triumvir (Echizen sanninshu) and eventually receiving Noto Province (1581). He aided Shibata Katsuie in the war with the Uesugi and assisted in the attacks on Etchû Province's Toyama and Uzu in 1582. He initially supported Shibata Katsuie during the Shizugatake Campaign but shifted his allegiance to Toyotomi Hideyoshi and as a reward he had the province of Kaga added to his domain. The richness of his domain was enhanced by the discovery of gold in Noto Province under Hodatsuyama in 1584. He supported Hideyoshi again in the Komaki Campaign, and in 10/1584 relieved Suemori, one of his castles which had been besieged by Sasa Narimasa. Sasa and Toshiie also clashed that year around Kanazawa in Kaga Province. The following year he pushed into Sasa territory and captured Narimasa's Toyama Castle in Etchû. He went on to serve in the Odawara Campaign (1590) and then as part of Hideyoshi's headquarters staff on Kyushu during the Korean Campaigns (1592-93, 97-98). The Maeda fief was valued at roughly 445,000 koku by 1595, and Toshiie was named one of the five regents responsible for keeping the realm in order while Toyotomi Hideyori came of age. He was also named as Hideyori's guardian, a task the dying Hideyoshi pleaded with him to uphold. He honored this show of trust but fell ill and died in 1599. He was also known as Maeda Matazaemon Toshiie.
Sons: Toshinaga, Toshimasa (Takamasa), Toshitsune

Maeda Toshinaga
Toyotomi retainer
1562-1614
Hizen no kami

Toshinaga was the eldest son of Maeda Toshiie and was known at first as Magashiro. In 1581 he married a young daughter (Naga, 1574-1623) of Oda Nobunaga. He was involved in the fighting around Suemori Castle in Noto (1584) and in 1587 led some 3,000 men in Hideyoshi's Kyushu Campaign. He later went to the Odawara Campaign with his father. Following the death of Toshiie, Toshinaga shared the Maeda domain (Etchû, Kaga, and Noto) with his brother Toshimasa. Hosokawa Tadaoki convinced Toshinaga to support Tokugawa Ieyasu in 1600, although Toshimasa opted to side with Ishida Mitsunari. During the Sekigahara Campaign Toshinaga assisted in the containment of Uesugi Kagekatsu while preventing his brother from making any real contribution to the 'western' cause. In addition, he defeated Tanba Nagashige at Asai. After the Tokugawa victory, Toshinaga received Toshimasa's lands. He was one of the first (if not the first) daimyô to build a private mansion in Edo, a gesture quickly copied by other notables. He adopted his younger brother Toshitsune as heir and retired in 1605 at Toyama in Etchû Province.

Maeda Toshimasa
Toyotomi retainer
1578-1633
Noto no kami

Toshimasa was the second son of Maeda Toshiie and was given a 215,000 koku fief in Noto Province after his father's death (1599). He supported Ishida Mitsunari during the Sekigahara Campaign and had evidently plotted to assassinate Tokugawa Ieyasu beforehand. After Mitsunari's defeat, Toshimasa was forced to retire and hand his lands over to his elder brother Toshinaga. He afterwards went to Kyoto and took the tonsure.

Maeda Toshitsune
Lord of Kaga, Noto, and Etchû
1593-1658

Toshitsune was the 4th son of Maeda Toshiie. He was adopted as heir by his elder brother Toshinaga and became daimyô of the Maeda in 1614. He led men against the defenders of Osaka Castle and fought at the Battle of Tennôji (1615). He retired in 1639 and was succeeded by his son Mitsumasa while placing a younger son, Toshiharu, in charge of the recently created Daishoji han and his 3rd son Toshitsugi in Toyama. By this point the Maeda clan had become one of the most powerful daimyô houses in Japan.
Sons: Mitsumasa (1613-1645), Toshitsugi, Toshiharu (1618-1660)

MAENO Nagayasu
Oda, Toyotomi retainer
d.1595
Tajima no kami

Nagayasu, who was also known as Suemon, was a son of Maeno Muneyasu. He briefly served Oda Nobunaga as a page, then entered the service of Oda Nobukiyo. Following the fall of Inuyama Castle, Meano returned to Nobunaga's service and eventually became a retainer of Toyotomi Hideyoshi. He built Sunomata Castle and served in all of Hideyoshi's campaigns, being awarded land in Tajima. During the Odawara Campaign (1590), he assisted in the attack on Nirayama Castle in Izu and later participated in the 1st invasion of Korea. Nonetheless, he was forced to commit suicide along with his son as a result of the Hidetsugu affair.
Son: Kagesada (d.1595)

MAKARA Naotaka
Asakura retainer
d.1570
Jûrôzaemon

Naotaka served Asakura Yoshikage. He personally covered the retreat of the Asakura at Anegawa, engaging in hand-to-hand combat with the support of his son until he was cut down.
Son: Naomoto (Jûrôsaburô, d.1570)

MAKINO Sadanari
Imagawa retainer
d.1566

Sadanari was a son of Makino Ujikatsu and served Imagawa Yoshimoto and later Imagawa Ujizane.

MARUME Nagayoshi
Sagara retainer
1540-1629

Nagayoshi was a retainer of the Sagara family of Higo Province. He is said to have met the wandering swordsman Kamiizumi Nobutsuna and studied under him, later forming his own school of swordsmanship on Kyushu.

MASAKI Tokitada
Satomi retainer
d.1571
Sakon-daibu

Tokitada was an important retainer of the Satomi and was active in the latter's efforts to subdue the Boso area, assisting in the war with the Takeda of Kazusa. He captured a number of castles between 1550 and 1560, including a number in the Chiba's domain. Following the Satomi defeat at 2nd Konodai (1564), Tokitada rebelled. He later submitted and supported the Satomi until his death in 8/1571.

MASHITA Nagamori
Toyotomi retainer
d.1615
Uemon no jô

Nagamori served Toyotomi Hideyoshi in a largely administrative capacity, helping conduct land surveys in Ômi (1591), Awa (1593), and Hitachi (1595). In 1595 he was given the fief of Koriyama in Yamato Province with an income of 200,000 koku and was named one of Hideyoshi's Five Commisioners (san bugyô,) whose responsibilities were centered on the administration of Kyoto. He sided with Ishida Mitsunari during the Sekigahara Campaign (1600) and was appointed rusui (Lord Lieutenant) of Osaka Castle. After Mitsunari's defeat Nagamori was deprived of his Koriyama domain and ordered to pay heavy reparations. His son Moritsugu was one of the defenders of Osaka Castle (1614-1615) and as a result, Nagamori was made to commit suicide.
Son: Moritsugu

MATSUDA Norihide
Hôjô retainer
d.1590
Owari no kami

Norhide was the son of Matsuda Yorihide. He was one of Hôjô Ujimasa's chief retainers but during Toyotomi Hideyoshi's siege of Odawara in 1590, he communicated with the enemy. He was uncovered by the Hôjô and placed under confinement. Despite his covert activities, he was made to commit suicide after the fall of the castle along with Ujimasa and Daidôji Masashige. His younger brother Yasusada later came to serve Tokugawa Ieyasu.

MATSUDA (Bizen)

The Matsuda's origins are obscure but by the end of the 15th Century they were a growing power in western Bizen province and clashed with the Akamatsu. They resisted the Akamatsu's efforts to subdue them and come to control Bizen's Asahi River valley. The Matsuda competed with the Urakami and by 1568 had been reduced largely due to the efforts of Ukita Naoie. They afterwards seem to have devoted themselves to religious affairs, in particular Nichiren Buddhism.

MATSUDAIRA

The Matsudaira of Mikawa family claimed descent from Minamoto Yoshikuni, a son of Minamoto Yoshiie. Successive generations adopted the names Nitta, Tokugawa, and Serata. The Matsudaira settled in Mikawa Province sometime in the 14th Century, the name 'Matsudaira' being assumed by Yasuchika (ca.1390). The Matsudaira struggled to maintain their domain and in the first half of the 16th Century were caught between the Oda and Imagawa. Matsudaira Motoyasu changed the name of the main branch of his family to Tokugawa. He himself became Tokugawa Ieyasu. The name 'Matsudaira' remained with a number of subsidiary branches and was given by Ieyasu to certain of his retainers and allies as an honorific.

Matsudaira Nobutada
Mikawa warlord
1489-1531

Nobutada was the son of Matsudaira Nagachika and held Anjô Castle in Mikawa Province.
Sons: Kiyoyasu, Nobutaka, Yasutaka

Matsudaira Kiyoyasu
Mikawa warlord
1511-1536

Kiyoyasu was the eldest son of Matsudaira Nobutada. He moved to consolidate the position of the Matsudaira in Mikawa Province, capturing Okazaki Castle in 1524. He was killed by Abe Yashichi stemming from a quarrel over whether or not to submit to the Imagawa.
Son: Hirotada

Matsudaira Hirotada
(Matsudaira Jirosaburo)
Mikawa warlord
1526-1549

Hirotada was the son of Matsudaira Kiyoyasu. His father had been slain when he was about ten and for a time he was protected by Abe Sadayoshi. With the aid of the Imagawa, Abe was able to have Hirotada safely installed at Okazaki Castle. He allowed the Matsudaira to come under the influence of the Imagawa and fought with the Oda of Owari, who took Anjo Castle in 1540. In 1541 Hirotada married the daughter of Mizuno Tadamasa (she is known as Dai no kata) and she gave birth to the future Tokugawa Ieyasu the next year. Hirotada divorced Dai no kata after the Mizuno betrayed him in 1544 and married the daughter of Toda Yasumitsu, a union that produced a son (Iemoto) and three daughters. He was defeated by the Oda along with the Imagawa at the 1st Battle of Azukizaka the following year and suffered the defection of his uncle, Matsudaira Nobutaka, to the Oda. Hard-pressed by Oda Nobuhide, Hirotada asked the Imagawa for more assistance and was compelled to send his son as a hostage to the Imagawa's capital of Sumpu in Suruga Province. The child (the future Tokugawa Ieyasu) was intercepted en route by the Oda and kept at Nagoya for a number of years. Hirotada was defeated in an attempt to retake Anjo and survived an assassination attempt by Iwamatsu Hachiya. The Imagawa and Matsudaira defeated the Oda at the 2nd Battle of Azukizaka in 1548 but Hirotada died of illness the following year. In 1612 his son Ieyasu, now a retired shôgun, requested that rank of Dainogon be posthumously conferred on Hirotada.
Sons:(Tokugawa) Ieyasu, Iemoto

Matsudaira Nobutaka
Mikawa warlord
d.1548

Nobutaka was a son of Matsudaira Nobutada. He rebelled against his nephew Hirotada in 1543 and went over to Oda Nobuhide. He was killed at the 2nd Battle of Azukizaka fighting alongside the Oda against the Imagawa and Matsudaira.

Matsudaira Tadamoto
Matsudaira retainer
d.1547

Tadamoto was a relative of Matsudaira Hirotada and held Kamiwada Castle in Mikawa. He was prompted to rebel following the Hirotada's decision to submit to the Imagawa. He aligned himself with Oda Nobuhide but was killed by a certain Kakehi Shigetada when he attempted to force the surrender of Okazaki Castle

Matsudaira Ietada
(Katahara Ietada)
Tokugawa retainer
1547-1600

Ietada served Tokugawa Ieyasu and fought in many of his battles, commanding part of the left wing at Mikagahara. In 1600 he was one of the defenders of Fushimi Castle under Torii Mototada, and died when that place fell to Ishida Mitsunari's generals.
Son: Ienobu (1569-1638)

Matsudaira Hideyasu
See YÛKI HIDEYASU.

Matsudaira Yasunaga
(Toda Yasunaga)
1562-1632
Tokugawa retainer

Yasunaga was a son of Toda Danjô Tadashige. He married an adopted daughter of Tokugawa Ieyasu (the daughter of Hisamatsu Toshikatsu) and was allowed to assume the name 'Matsudaira'. He first saw service at the recapture of Takatenjin Castle in Tôtômi in 1581 and during the Sekigahara Campaign (1600) participated in the capture of Ôgaki in Mino Province. he was afterwards awarded a string of fiefs that culminated in his transfer to Matsumoto in Shinano Province, worth 60,000 koku.

Matsudaira Tadaaki
Tokugawa retainer
1583-1644

Tadaaki was a son of Okudaira Nobumasa and thus a grandson of Tokugawa Ieyasu (through his mother). He was adopted by Ieyasu and given the name Matsudaira and a 50,000-koku fief in Ise Province at Kameyama in 1610. He was a notable commander in the Osaka Campaigns and was afterwards given Osaka (and a domain in Settsu and Kwatchi Provinces worth 100,000 koku), whose town he set about rebuilding. He was transferred to Kôriyama in Yamato Province (worth 120,000 koku) in 7/1619. In 1639 he was relocated to Himeji in Harima and given a domain worth 180,000 koku.

MATSUKURA Shigemasa
Tsutsui retainer
1574-1630
Bungo no kami

Shigemasa was a retainer of Tsutsui Sadatsugu. He fought at Sekigahara (1600) and was given the Shimabara area of Hizen Province in 1615 (60,000 koku). He reputedly contemplated an invasion of the Philippines that found tacit support with shôgun Tokugawa Iemitsu but died before any attempt could be made. His son Katsuie would be in large measure responsible for the Shimabara Rebellion of 1637.
Son: Katsuie (Shigeharu; d.1638)

MATSUMAE

The Matsumae mon

The Matsumae were an offshoot of the Takeda and unified Hokkaido's Oshima Peninsula during the mid-16th Century. They later submitted to Toyotomi Hideyoshi and were confirmed in their holdings by Tokugawa Ieyasu.

Matsumae Yoshihiro
(Kakizaki Yoshihiro)
Ezo warlord
1550 - 1618

Matsumae Yoshihiro was the lord of the Sonogi area of Ezo Province (Hokkaido) and submitted to Toyotomi Hideyoshi in 1590, bringing troops to the reduction of Kunoe Castle the following year. Until the time of Yoshihiro, the Matsumae were known as the 'Kakizaki' clan - this would change in 1606, when Yoshihiro visited Kyoto and Osaka. He became known as 'Matsumae' Yoshihiro while showing a map of Matsumae, the town in Ezo where his clan was originally from, to a group of the late Hideyoshi's chief retainers at Osaka Castle. Yoshihiro had reportedly many Ainu in his army, and these were well-known for their special poisoned arrows, although it is not known how effective these arrows were in battle, if employed at all.

MATSUMOTO Kageshige
Uesugi retainer
Iwami no kami

Kageshige was a close retainer of Uesugi Kenshin and held Hagi Castle in Echigo Province. Active in Kenshin's campaigns in the Kanto region, in 1569 he was dispatched to the Hôjô to conclude a peace treaty.

MATSUNAGA Hisahide
(Matsunaga Sôtai)
Yamato warlord, Oda retainer
1510-1577
Danjô

The Matsunaga mon

Hisahide, whose exact origins and lineage are something of a mystery, was a retainer of the noted daimyô Miyoshi Chokei from a young age and assisted him in the defeat of Miyoshi Masanaga in 1549. He afterwards acted as Chokei's governor in Kyoto and was later tasked with the conquest of Yamato province, an endeavor that essentially left him an independent daimyô. In 1567 he built Tamon Castle on Mikenjiyama and thus came to exert influence over the Nara area. As his own power grew, he conspired to undermine Chokei, and is thought to have had a hand in the deaths of the latter's brothers. Hisahide may also have arranged the death of Chokei's son and heir, Yoshitoki, in 1563. He nonetheless allied with Miyoshi Yoshitsugu following Chokei's death (1564) and sent his troops to help kill the shôgun, Ashikaga Yoshiteru (1565), with the idea of placing a more willing puppet in his place. Once this deed was done, relations between the Matsunaga and Miyoshi quickly soured, and soon the two houses were at war. Their seesaw contest, laregly played out in Yamato and Kwatchi, was halted by Oda Nobunaga's arrival in Kyoto in 1568. Matsunaga made peace with Oda (offering him a particularly well-known tea item as a show of good faith) and assisted him in his wars with the Asai and Asakura and Miyoshi. He briefly strayed from Oda's camp in 1573, only to return and join the ongoing siege of the Ishiyama Honganji. He rebelled again in 1577 (possibly as a result of Uesugi Kenshin's moves to the north) but was quickly besieged in Shigi Castle by Oda Nobutada and Tsutsui Junkei. Before killing himself, Matsunaga smashed a famous tea item rather then allow it to fall into Oda's hands. This famous scene was to be depicted many times in later artwork. A famous schemer and villain of many Edo Period works, Matsunaga was also a tea master of some note. He is particularly well-remembered for burning the Great Buddha Hall of the Todaiji (Nara province) during his war with the Miyoshi.
Son: Hisamichi

Matsunaga Hisamichi
Matsunaga retainer
d.1577
Uemon no jô

Hisamichi was the son of Matsunaga Hisahide and assisted in the murder of shôgun Ashikaga Yoshiteru in 1565. He joined his father in rebelling against Oda Nobunaga in 1577 but was captured and later executed in Kyoto.

MATSUOKA Nagatoki
Date retainer
1564-1644

Nagatoki was a vassal of the Date clan but became a ronin for a short time in 159. He went to serve Matsudaira Tadateru of Echigo, and given an income of 500 koku. However, after the Matsudaira of Echigo were disgraced, Nagatoki once again returned to the Date clan and served diligently.

MATSUSHITA Yukitsuna
Imagawa, Toyotomi, Tokugawa retainer
1537-1598
Iwami no kami

Yukitsuna was the son of Matsushita Naganori. He at first served the Imagawa and Zudaiji Castle in Tôtômi. According to legend, Yukitsuna had as a young man shown kindness to an anonymous wanderer who later became known as Toyotomi Hideyoshi. Hideyoshi never forgot Yukitsuna's consideration and made a daimyô of him many years later. However, Yukitsuna's lands fell under the control of Tokugawa Ieyasu after 1584 and he went on to serve the latter.

MATSUURA

The Matsuura of Hizen Province had somewhat obscure origins, and may have originally been a collection of land-owners who united under the name 'Matsuura'. One theory holds that the Matsuura line that persisted into the Edo Period was established by Minamoto Hisashi, a descendant of the Emperor Saga. The Matsuura, known for their naval power (and involvement in piracy), survived the Sengoku period and became Edo period daimyô.

Matsuura Takanobu
Hizen warlord
1529-1599
Hizen no kami

Takanobu was the son of Matsuura Hisanobu and ruled Hirado Island. Reputedly affiliated with the wako (Japanese pirates), he clashed with his neighbors the Sô (of Tsushima Island) and the Ômura (of the Sonogi area of Hizen) as he expanded Matsuura power. By the end of the 1560's had consolidated his hold over the Matsuura district, aided by a small but important influx of income brought about by trade with the Portuguese. He was exceedingly opposed to the introduction of Christianity, though he at first tolerated it in view of the profits brought by the foreign trading ships. Tension built within the Matsuura domain, however, and in 1561a dozen Portuguese traders were killed in a dispute over the cost of cloth. Though he relented in his anti-foreign stance to an extent after 1564, in 1565 Takanobu ordered his own ships to attack the Westerners' 'Great Ship' after it had anchored in the Ômura domain (eschewing the Matsuura domain). The assault failed after another Portuguese vessel came to the Ship's aid. He retired in 1568 in favor of his son Shigenobu. He was also known as Matsuura Gensaburô.
Sons: Shigenobu, Nobusane (Bungo no kami; d.1621)

Matsuura Shigenobu
Warlord of Hizen
1549-1614
Hizen no kami

Shigenobu was the son of Matsuura Takanobu and ruled Hirado Island. He became daimyô in 1568 and defeated his rivals the Sô (of Tsushima Island) in 1572. He briefly submitted to the authority of the Ryûzôji, then gave his support to Toyotomi Hideyoshi during the latter's Kyushu Campaign (1587). Though he had officially retired in favor of his son Hisanobu in 1589, he led some 3,000 men to Korean under Konishi Yukinaga in the 1st Korean Campaign, and again in the 2nd Campaign, gaining fame for leading an attack at Namwön. As a result of his activities in 1587 and in Korea, the Matsuura domain was increased to include the Sonogi area in Hizen and Iki Island, for a total of 63,000 koku. He remained neutral during the Sekigahara Campaign but did not suffer the loss of any lands as a result; he came aboard the English ship Clove in 1613, an event recorded by John Saris. Shigenobu was ultimately succeeded by his grandson Takanobu.
Son: Hisanobu

Matsuura Hisanobu
1571-1602
daimyô (Hizen)
Hizen no kami

Hisanobu followed his father Shigenobu as daimyô of Hirado and served in both Korean Campaigns. He died in 1602 and was succeeded by his own son Takanobu.
Son: Takanobu (Hizen no kami, Iki no kami; 1591-1637)

MEABA Yoshitsugu
Asakura, Oda retiner
1541-1574

Yoshitsugu at first served Asakura Yoshikage. His relations with his lord soured and when the Asakura army went to support the Asai at Odani Castle against the Oda in 1572, Yoshitsugu slipped out of camp and went over to the Oda. The following year he acted as a guide for the Oda army when it invaded Echizen Province. He was afterwards reestablished with a fief in Echizen and changed his name to Katsurada Nagatoshi. He was killed the following year when the Echizen ikko, supported by secretarians from Kaga, rose up.

MEGATA Yukinobu
(Megata Shimbei)
Amako retainer
d.1569

Yukinobu served Amako Yoshihisa until Gassan-Toda fell in January 1567, at which point he became a ronin. He later joined Amako Katsuhisa and Yamanaka Shikanosuke in their efforts to regain Izumo from the Môri. He died of illness while on campaign to achieve that end.

MENJU

The Menju were from Owari Province. Their exact origins and early course are unclear, though they claimed descent from Minamoto Yorimitsu. During the sengoku period they came to serve the Shibata, an Oda retainer family. After the Shibata were destroyed in 1583 by Toyotomi Hideyoshi, the Menju ended up in the service of the Owari Tokugawa house.

Menju Ieteru
Shibata retainer
d.1583

Ieteru was the second son of Menju Katsuaki. He was from Owari Province and served Shibata Katsuie from about the age of twelve. Katsuie was very impressed with Ieteru and held the young man in great favor. At the Battle of Nagashima in 1574, Ieteru earned much praise for recovering Katsuie's horse standard, which had been siezed by the enemy. In the aftermath of the Battle of Shizugatake, Toyotomi Hideyoshi pushed against the Shibata domain. Katsuie had come forward but was confronted by a numerically superior force. To assist in his retreat, Ieteru requested the use of his standard. Taking this he declared himself to be Katsuie and rode out to distract the enemy. While Ieteru was soon killed, Katsuie was able to escape to his castle and prepare himself for the suicide that followed. Ieteru's two brothers, Masanobu and Yoshikatsu, died in the same battle. Hideyoshi was so impressed with the sacrifice of the Menju brothers that he made a point of conveying his condolences to their family and seeing to their safe treatment.

MERA Suketsuku
Itô retainer
1529-1578

Suketsuku was a retainer of Itô Yoshisuke of Kyuga Province. When the Itô fell to the Shimazu in 1577, Suketsuku secretly communicated with the Ôtomo. When the Ôtomo advanced into Hyuga in 1578, Suketsuku came out to join them. He was killed in the defeat at Mimigawa that year.

MIBUCHI Harusada
(Hosokawa Harusada)
Ashikaga retainer
Iga no kami

Harusada was a younger son of Hosokawa Motoari. Harusada's elder brother Mototsune adopted the former's son, Fujitaka.
Son: (Hosokawa) Fujitaka

MIHARA Shigeaki
Shimazu retainer
Tôtômi no kami

Shigeaki served the Shimazu and was also known as Jirôshirô. He was a retainer of Shimazu Takahisa and was present at Shimazu Yoshihisa's coming of age ceremony, rising to become an important retainer of the latter. At long-standing and trusted Shimazu retainer, Shigeaki held land in Ôsumi Province.

MIKUMO

The Mikumo of Ômi Province served the Rokkaku family until the latter was destroyed by Oda Nobunaga. They went on to serve the Oda, Gamô, and, finally, the Tokugawa. The Mikumo themselves died out in the early 17th Century.

Mikumo Shigemochi
Rokkaku, Oda retainer
d.1605

Shigemochi was the second son of Mikumo Sadamochi (d.1570). He at first served Rokkaku Yoshikata, then became a ronin when the Rokkaku were defeated by Oda Nobunaga. He eventually entered the service of Oda Nobuo (1584). He later became a retainer of the Gamô family.
Son: Shigenaga

MIMURA Motochika
1555?-1575
Bitchû warlord
Bitchû no kami

Motochika was the son of Mimura Kii no kami Iechika. His domain lay in Bitchû Province/ His father was assassinated in 1566 this was suspected to have been arranged by his rival Ukita Hideie. Motochika was forced to call on the assistance of the Môri when his domain was threatened by former Amako retainers under Yamanaka Shikanosuke. He later entered into secret communications with the Oda which, unfortunately, came to the attention of the Môri and made them enemies. Motochika found himself assailed by an overwhelming Môri army in 1575 and lost his Matsuyama Castle to Kobayakawa Takakage. He escaped the castle at the last minute but was injured in the effort, afterwards committing suicide. His grandfather Munechika had supported Hosokawa Takakuni.

MINAGAWA Hiroteru
Warlord of Shimotsuke
d.1625

Hiroteru was the son of Minagawa Hirokatsu (1548-1576) and a minor daimyô who submitted to the Hôjô. In 1590 he abandoned the Hôjô for Toyotomi Hideyoshi and was confirmed in his 30,000-koku fief. at Tochigi In 1603 he was given a fief in Shinano at Iiyama (40,000-koku) but lost it as a result of his association with the Okubo, who were disgraced and fell from power in 1616. His son later received Fuchû in Hitachi (15,000 koku).
Son: Takatsune

MINOWA Shigezumi
Shimazu retainer
Iga no kami

Shigezumi served Shimazu Takahisa and Yoshihisa. He earned fame for leading a relief force that rescued Shimazu Yoshihisa, trapped by an enemy army at Kitamura Castle in 1555. He later became a lay-priest and wrote of the Shimazu's battles under Yoshihisa.

MITSUGI Yoshiyori
See ANEGAKOJI Yoshiyori

MIURA

The Miura mon

The Miura of Sadami Province were descended from Miura Yoshiaki (d.1181), who was himself descended from Miura Takemichi (who claimed Taira ancestry). The Miura, while vice-governors of Sagami Province for the Taira, supported Minamoto Yoritomo in the 1180-85 Gempei War and afterwards enjoyed considerable influence. Perhaps for fear of their strong position, the Hôjô regent Tokiyori but his line was almost wiped out when his son Yasumura was killed following a rivalry with the Adachi family. A minor branch existed into the early Sengoku Period, only to fall to the Hôjô in 1516.

Miura Tokitaka
Sagami warlord
d.1496

Tokitaka was powerful on the Miura Peninsula (in eastern Sagami Province). He adopted his heir Yoshiatsu from the Uesugi, but when a natural son was born to Tokitaka, he forced Yoshiatsu into the priesthood. Yoshiatsu suddenly rebelled and Tokitaka was attacked at Arai in a night raid and killed along with his son.
Sons: Yoshiatsu (Adopted), Takanori

Miura Yoshiatsu
d.1516
Sagami warlord

Yoshiatsu was the son of Uesugi Takamasa and was adopted by Miura Tokitaka. He overthrew Tokitaka in 1496 and established his own son Yoshimoto at Arai while he resided in Okazaki. He became involved in a war with Hôjô Sôun when the latter took Odawara Castle. Yoshiatsu was attacked at Okazaki in 1512 and fled to Arai. The Hôjô defeated Yoshiatsu's allies, the Ota, and Yoshiatsu was left isolated. After a long siege Arai fell to the Hôjô in 1516. Yoshiatsu committed suicide along with Yoshimoto.
Sons: Yoshimoto, Yoshimasa

Miura Yoshimoto
(Miura Dôsun)
Miura retainer
d.1516

Yoshimoto was the eldest son of Miura Yoshiatsu and received Arai on the tip of the Miura Peninsula from him after 1496. He committed suicide along with his father when the Hôjô stormed Arai Castle in 1516- in his case, supposedly, by cutting off his own head.

MIYABE Tsugimasu
(Miyabe Keijun)
Asai retainer
1528-1599

Tsugimasu was originally a monk of the Enryakuji who accepted service with Asai Nagamasa and was given Miyabe Castle. He fought in the center of the Asai army at Anegawa but later betrayed Nagamasa and assisted in his downfall in 1573. Tsugimasu came to serve Hideyoshi in a largely administrative capacity, he did take part in the Toyotomi invasion of Kyushu in 1587 and saw battle at Taka castle in Hyûga. Among domestic his duties, he served Hideyoshi as an agricultural daikan and eventually received Tottori Castle in Inaba, which he passed to his son in 1596 and then retired.
Son: Nagahiro

Miyabe Nagahiro
(Miyabe Nagafusa, Miyabe Sadayuki)
Toyotomi retainer
1581-1634
Hyôbu-shôsuke

Nagahiro was the son of Miyabe Tsugimasu. He succeeded his father in 1596 and held a sizable fief in Inaba and Tajima. In 1600 he sided with the Western Army and served under the Kakiya in the Siege of Ôtsu Castle (1600). After the battle he was stripped of his holdings and placed in the custody of Nanbu Toshinao.

MIYAHARA Kagetane
Shimazu retainer
d.1587
Chikuzen no kami

Kagetane served Shimazu Takahisa and Yoshihisa. He distinguished himself in battle against the Hisakari in 1567 and again at Ôguchi Castle in 1569, where he served under Niiro Tadamoto. He died fighting the Toyotomi army in Higo Province in 1587.

MIYAKE

The Miyake of Mikawa Province were founded by a son of Kojima Takanori in the mid-14th Century. They at first fought with the Matsudaira clan during the 16th Century, then became retainers of them after 1558 during the time of Miyake Masasada. Tokugawa Ieyasu later gave Miyake Yasusada (a son of Masasada) a 10,000-koku fief in Mikawa and in 1592 named him a councilor.

MIYAMOTO Musashi
1584-1645
Swordsman, author of Gorin no shô

Musashi was born in Harima Province and may have served at Sekigahara (1600) under the Ukita. He later went to Kyoto and soon made a name for himself as a swordsman, clashing with the Yoshioka school of swordsmanship. He claimed to have won 60 duels by the time he was 28, the first when he was 13. He entered the service of the Hosokawa in 1640 and in 1645 composed the Gorin no shô (the 'Book of Five Rings'). Musashi is sometimes attributed with serving at Osaka Castle (on the losing side, 1614-1615) and at the suppression of the Shimabara Rebellion (1638), though this is impossible to prove. He is the most famous of the early Edo Period's 'wandering swordsman' figures.

MIYOSHI

The Miyoshi mon

The Miyoshi family tree

The Miyoshi of the Awa Province of Shikoku entered the sengoku period as retainers of the Hosokawa. With various branches of the Hosokawa vying for control of the position of kanrei, the Miyoshi were called to serve and became increasingly relied upon. Miyoshi Yukinaga's troops participiated in the seesaw contest for Kyoto and although Yukinaga was forced to commit suicide in 1520, the fortunes of the Miyoshi reached their zenith under his grandson Nagayoshi (Chokei). Following Chokei's death in 1564, the Miyoshi were for a time directed by the so-called Miyoshi Triumvir (Miyoshi sanninshu while competing with their erstwhile retainer Matsunaga Hisahide. The Miyoshi and Matsunaga briefly joined forces to destroy Ashikaga Yoshiteru in 1565, placing the child Yoshihide in the position of shogun. Driven from Yamashiro Province in 1568 by Oda Nobunaga, the Miyoshi were next forced from their strongholds in Settsu and retired to Awa. There the remaining Miyoshi were eventually overcome by Chosokabe Motochika.

Miyoshi Yukinaga
(Miyoshi Nagateru)
d.1520
Chikuzen no kami

Yukinaga was a son of Miyoshi Nagayuki. He served the Hosokawa and held land in Awa Province. He supported Hosokawa Sumimoto and in 1506 led an army against Hosokawa Masamoto in Kyoto. Masamoto fled the capital and Yukinaga clashed inconclusivly with troops under Kôzai Motonaga. The following year Kôzai and Hosokawa Sumiyuki murdered Hosokawa Masamoto and drove Yukinaga from Kyoto. Yukinaga returned under the command of Sumimoto a month later and Sumiyuki committed suicide. In 1508 an Ôuchi army supporting the cause of Hosokawa Takakuni and Ashikaga Yoshitane marched on Kyoto and Yukinaga and Sumimoto fled to Shikoku. Yukinaga continued to support Sumimoto and managed to occupy Kyoto for a short time in 1511. While Hosokawa Takakuni was able to regain the capital, Yukinaga and Sumimoto once again entered the city in 1520. Takakuni was able, once again and with the assistance of the Rokkaku, to drive the Sumimoto faction from Kyoto and in the process Yukinaga was cornered and compelled to commit suicide.

Sons: Motonaga, Yasunaga

Miyoshi Motonaga
(Miyoshi Nagamoto)
d.1532
Chikuzen no kami

Motonaga was the eldest son of Miyoshi Yukinaga and originally a retainer of the Hosokawa. In 1521 he completed work on the Miyoshi stronghold in Settsu at Saki, which he named the 'Mandokoro'. He acted on behalf of Hosokawa Harumoto and Ashikaga Yoshitsuna in their bid for power and lodged them in Sakai. Motonaga and Harumoto soon grew hostile towards one another, and in 1532, with the help of the Ishiyama Honganji, Harumoto suddenly attacked Motonaga at the Kenponji in Sakai and forced him to commit suicide.

Sons: Nagayoshi, Yukiyasu (Jikkyû), (Atagi) Fuyuyasu, Miyoshi(Sogo) Kazunari

Miyoshi Nagayoshi
(Miyoshi Chokei, Miyoshi Norinaga, Miyoshi Nagateru)
Lord of Awa and Settsu
1523-1564
Shûri no daibu, Chikuzen no kami

Nagayoshi was the eldest son of Miyoshi Motonaga. Following his father's death, Nagayoshi struggled with his uncle Masanaga for power. He led an army into Kyoto (1539) and made an alliance with the Hosokawa. He initially accepted the orders of Hosokawa Harumoto and Masanaga and was dispatched to defeat Hosokawa Ujitsuna. Ujitsuna was driven from Sakai in 1543 and afterwards Nagayoshi placed his brother, Sogo Kazunari, in charge of its administration. Nagayoshi was compelled to defend Sakai in 1546 against an advance by Ujitsuna and was succesful through political aid on the part of the Sakai city members and his brothers on Shikoku. In 1548 he turned on Masanaga and destroyed him with the opportunistic assistance of Ujitsuna. That same year Nagayoshi asumed the name Chokei and soon afterwards openly broke from Hosokawa Harumoto. Harumoto was besieged in Miyake Castle (1549) and was forced to surrender. Nagayoshi allowed him to live and later recaptured him (1558). Nagayoshi extended Miyoshi power into the Yamato region after 1540 and allied with the Tsutsui. He relied on the support of his brothers and Matsunaga Hisahide, who is rumored to have done away with the those same brothers and Nagayoshi's only son Yoshioki (1564). The most powerful man in the Kinai between 1550 and his death, Nagayoshi actively played a role in Kyoto politics. This was at the expense of the shôgun, Ashikaga Yoshiteru, to whom Nagayoshi had acted as a self-proclaimed guardian. An avid poet, Nagayoshi is also remembered in part for his patronage of the famous renga composer, Satomura Jôha. He built the Nanshuji in Sakai in 1557, a notable temple later rebuilt (following its destruction in 1615) by the reknowned priest Takuan.
Son: Yoshioki (d.1563)

Miyoshi Yoshikata
(Miyoshi Jikkyû, Miyoshi Yukiyasu)
Miyoshi retainer
1527?-1562
Buzen no kami

Yukiyasu was a younger brother of Miyoshi Chokei and is perhaps better known as Jikkyû. He held a domain in Awa Province on Shikoku and gave support to his elder brother Chokei, who was based in Settsu Province. Yoshitaka was a capable figure but died under somewhat mysterious circumstances, leading many to suggest that the ambitious Matsunaga Hisahide had a hand in his demise.
Sons: Nagaharu

Miyoshi Kazunari
Miyoshi retainer
d.1561

Kazunari was a younger son of Miyoshi Motonaga and younger brother to Miyoshi Chokei. He was adopted into the Sogo family of Sanuki, held Sogo Castle, and was a noted and competant Miyoshi retainer until his sudden death in 1561, which may well have been arranged by Matsunaga Hisahide. Kazunari's son Yoshitsugu was adopted by Chokei while he himself adopted a younger son of Miyoshi Yukiyasu.
Son: Yoshitsugu

Miyoshi Yoshitsugu
Lord of Awa and Settsu
1551?-1573
Sakyô-daibu

Yoshitsugu was a son of Miyoshi (Sogo) Kazunari and the adopted son of Miyoshi Nagayoshi (Chokei). Adopted following the death of Miyoshi Yoshioki, he became the head of the Miyoshi in 1564. He was initally allied to Matsunaga Hisahide and together they ordered the death of shôgun Ashikaga Yoshiteru in 1565, cooperating to nominate the young Ashikaga Yoshihide. Soon afterwards the Miyoshi and Matsunaga began to argue, and then went to war. Yoshitsugu was powerful in Settsu Province but steadily lost ground to Oda Nobunaga, who entered Kyoto in 1568. He fought against the Oda for the next five years, entering into a loose alliance with other enemies of the latter. Yoshitsugu was finally surrounded at Wakae Castle in 1573 and committed suicide. Yoshitsugu established the Jukô-in in Kyoto in 1566, a temple that would later come to house the grave of Sen on Rikyu.
Son: Nagamoto

MIYOSHI SANNINSHU

The 'Miyoshi Triumvir', which directed Miyoshi policy after the death of Miyoshi Chokei in 1564. This consisted of Iwanari Tomomichi, Miyoshi Masayasu, and Miyoshi Nagayuki. They were driven from Kyoto by Oda Nobunaga in 1568 but in 1569 made an abortive attack on Ashikaga Yoshiaki.

copyright 2005 F. W. Seal