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KEDO-IN Yoshishige
Ôsumi warlord

Yoshishige was a son of Kedo-in Shigetake and the 13th (or 14th) head of his family. He was heavily involved in the shifting alliances and feuds that surrounded the Shimazu family in the early sengoku period, clashing with Shimazu Takashisa in 1544. He is said to have been stabbed to death by his wife (who was from the Shimazu house) in a fit of jealous rage. While his wife was quickly dispatched by one of his pages, the Kedo-in house came to an end. Yoshishige lands were absorbed by Iriki-in Shigetsugu. As the former Kedo-in retainers refused to follow Shigetsugu, Shimazu Takahisa took control of the area and later turned it over to Shimazu Toshihisa.

(Honganji Kennyo, Kennyo Shônin)
Honganji leader

Kosa was the son of Shonyo Kokyô, the leader of the Shinshû Buddhist sect, who passed away in 1554. Leadership of the Ishiyama Honganji (Hongan Temple) and Kaga Province passed to Kosa despite his youth with Imperial sanction. In 1568 Oda Nobunaga entered Kyoto, and relations between the Oda and Honganji quickly soured. In 1570 Nobunaga attacked the Honganji, which had become a fortress well stocked with provisions and firearms. Nobunaga's early attempts at a direct assault were repulsed, and he afterwards turned to reducing the Honganji's satellite forts. Kosa in turn called upon the assistance of the Môri family, who began ferrying in supplies with their powerful Inland Sea navy. The Môri navy was defeated in 1578 and the Honganji finally isolated. The siege nonetheless continued into 1580. Finally, in the 7th month of that year, Kosa agreed to surrender after the court's efforts to facilitate a peace. Nobunaga, in a rare show of temperance, accepted the offer. The Ishiyama Honganji complex was to be abandoned but the defenders were given pardon and the Honganji's temples in Kaga, seized by the Oda in the conquest of that province, were to be returned. Hideyoshi was to make use of Kosa's influence, and dispatched him to Kyushu to rally his supporters there in expectation of Hideyoshi's invasion of that island in 1587. In 1591 Hideyoshi permitted Kosa to build a new Honganji facility in Kyoto, which was constructed on three blocks in the southern part of the city.
Son: Koju

KII Chikafusa
Ôtomo, Toyotomi retainer

Chikafusa was a son of Kii Nagafusa who family had been minor daimyô in Buzen before submitting to the Ôtomo. Chikafusa threw in with the Shimazu when they invaded the Ôtomo's domain in 1586. He submitted to Toyotomi Hideyoshi the following year though he opposed Kuroda Yoshitaka (who had been given Buzen as his fief) and was murdered on Kuroda Nagamasa's orders.

KIIRE Hisamichi
Shimazu retainer
Shikibu-taiyu, Settsu no kami

Hisamichi was a son of Shimazu Tadayoshi and assumed the name 'Kiire' in 1558. He became an important Shimazu retainer who was present for many of Shimazu Yoshihisa's campaigns and acted as a negotiator with outside houses. He was notable for his skill at flower arrangement and linked poetry (renga).


The Kikkawa mon

The Kikkawa of Aki Province were descended from a certain Kikkawa Tomokane who was killed helping to destroy Kajiwara Kagetoki in 1199. Tomokane's grandson Tsunemitsu was granted a fief in Aki at Ôasa. During the latter part of the 15th Century the Kikkawa served such shugo powers as the Akamatsu and Aki-Takeda, and initially competed with the Môri for land in Aki. They were brought under the Môri's sway by the adoption of Motonari's 2nd son Motoharu as heir.

Kikkawa Okitsune
Aki warlord

Okitsune was a rival of Môri Motonari and allied himself with the Amako in the 1540's. Motonari responded by pressuring Okitsune to adopt his son Motoharu and in 1550 he was compelled to retire, later being killed on Motonari's orders.

Kikkawa Motoharu
Môri retainer
Jibu-Shôsuke, Suruga no kami

Motoharu, the 2nd son of Môri Motonari, was adopted into the Kikkawa and became the head of that family in the 2nd month of 1550. At first lord of Ogurayama Castle, he proved himself an invaluable asset to his father Motonari in many campaigns. Following the surrender of Amako Yoshihisa in 1/1566, Motoharu was given Gassan-Toda Castle in Izumo province, where he clashed with Amako loyalists led by Amako Katsuhisa. He defeated Ôuchi Teruhiro, who had rebelled in conjunction with the Amako's efforts, at Chausuyama in Suo in late 1569 and forced the latter to commit suicide. At that time Motoharu was essentially responsible for the upper Môri domain, including Iwami, Izumo, and Hoki while his younger brother Kobayakawa Takakage defended Môri holdings and interests in the lands adjacent to the Inland Sea. Motoharu was active in the war with the Oda that culminated in the Siege of Takamatsu Castle in Bingo and after the death of Nobunaga (1582) played an important role in Hideyoshi's conquest of Shikoku in 1585, landing with Takakage on Iyo with 30,000 men. He died the following year and was briefly succeeded by his son Motonaga.
Sons: Motonaga, Motouji (1556-1631), Hiroie

Kikkawa Motonaga
Môri retainer

Motonaga assisted his father Motoharu in his struggles with Yamanaka Shikanosuke and other Amako loyalists in Izumo and Hoki Provinces. He died a year after his father and was succeeded by his younger brother Hiroie.

Kikkawa Hiroie
Môori retainer

Hiroie was a younger son of Kikkawa Motoharu and succeeded his elder brother Motonaga when the latter died in 1587. He ruled the former Amako domain and was one of the most powerful men in the Môri clan. He led troops under his cousin Môri Terumoto in the 1st and 2nd Korean Campaigns. When sides were being drawn between Ishida Mitsunari and Tokugawa Ieyasu, Hiroie urged Terumoto to side with the latter, a recommendation that Terumoto did not specifically decline (despite going along with Ishida), thus prompting Hiroie to send a secret message to Ieyasu to the effect that he could count on the Môori to do nothing in the coming fight. In the Battle of Sekigahara, Hiroie, with 3,000 men, occupied the lead position in the Môri army deployed on the east side of Mt. Nangû - when the fighting began he refused to move, thus preventing Môri Hidemoto (with 15,000 men) from entering the fray. After the battle, Hiroie was disappointed to discover that Ieyasu had no intention of rewarding the Môri for their inactivity, though he did increase Hiroie's own fief somewhat. Hiroie built Iwakuni Castle in 1608.
Sons: Hiromasa (1601-1666), Nariyori (1607-1676)

Kikkawa Tsuneie
Môri retainer

Tsunie was dispatched to assist Yamana Toyokuni when the domain of the Yamana, Môri allies, were invaded by the Oda in 1580. Although Toyokuni opted to flee rather then face the Oda, Tsuneie occupied Tottori Castle and organized a defense. The castle came under attack by Oda forces under Hashiba (Toyotomi) Hideyoshi, who opted to starve the garrison out. To this end, the local villagers were driven within the walls of the castle and all the approaches to Tottori were covered. The defenders held out stoutly against all efforts at storming the walls but soon food stuffs ran so low that they were reduced to consuming all of the horses they had on hand - when these were gone, the defenders began eating grass. Starvation began to have effect Hideyoshi intended: the strength of those inside the castle ebbed and disease broke out. Finally, Tsuneie, after some 200 days, agreed to commit suicide and surrender the castle to spare his men further suffering. The Siege of Tottori is remembered as one of the bitterest engagements of the sengoku period.

Ôsumi warlord
Kawachi no kami

Kanetsugu was the son of Kimotsuke Kaneoki. He assumed leadership of his family in 1533 and was initially an ally of Shimazu Takahisa, whom he assisted at the attack on Ichiki in 1538. Kanetsugu later broke from the Shimazu and allied with the Itô of Hyûga. In 1566 he was captured by the Shimazu and made to commit suicide. He was succeeded by his son Yoshikane, who was in turn succeeded by Kanetsugu's 2nd son, Kaneaaki (1558-1634).

Kimotsuki Kanehiro
Shimazu retainer

Kanehiro was the son of Kimotsuki Kanemori (1533-1578). He served Shimazu Yoshihisa and accompanied on campaigns into Higo and Hizen Provinces. He received Kajiki Castle in Ôsumi and an income of around 15,000 koku, as well as an important place in the Shimazu retainer band.

KIMURA Shigekore
Toytomi retainer

Shigekore served Toyotomi Hideyoshi and served him at the Battle of Yamazaki (1582) and in the Odawara Campaign against the Hôjô (1590). He became an associate of Toyotomi Hidetsugu and committed suicide after the latter's downfall in 1595.
Son: Shigenari

Kimura Shigenari
Toyotomi retainer
Nagato no kami

Shigenari was the son of Kimura Shigekore. He joined the defenders of Osaka Castle in 1614 and was killed at the Battle of Wakae in the Osaka Summer Campaign. He was said to have been a strikingly handsome man and was famed for his bravery at Osaka.

Kimura Hidetoshi
Toyotomi retainer

Hidetoshi was a former retainer of Akechi Mitsuhide who later served Toyotomi Hideyoshi. In 1590 he was given a 300,000-koku fief in Mutsu at Toyama but in 1591 his poor administration and that of his son Shigemasa touched of a revolt of former Kasai and Ôsaki retainers and farmers that had to be put down by Date Masamune. Hidetoshi and his son were soon afterwards dispossessed.
Son: Shigemasa

see TOYOTOMI Hideyoshi

Toyotomi retainer

Iesada was a brother in law of Toyotomi Hideyoshi and, like Hideyoshi, came from Nakamura in Owari Province. He accompanied Hideyoshi to Ômi Province in 1574 and was given a 40,000-koku fief at Himeji in Harima Province in 1585. Following the Sekigahara Campaign (1600), he was moved to Ashimori in Bitchû Province (worth 25,000 koku).
Sons: Katsutoshi, Toshifusa, Nobutoshi (1577-1642)

Kinoshita Katsutoshi
(Hashiba Katsutoshi)
Toyotomi retainer

Katsutoshi was the eldest son of Kinoshita Iesada and a nephew of Toyotomi Hideyoshi. He was given Obama in Wakasa province in 1594, worth some 80,000 koku. During the Sekigahara Campaign (1600) he supported Ishida Mitsunari and was dispossessed after the latter's defeat. He retired to Kyoto with the name Chôshôshi and produced a number of books relating to waka (31 syllable poetry).

Kinoshita Toshifusa
Toyotomi, Tokugawa retainer
Wakasa no kami

Toshifusa was the second son of Kinoshita Iesada. He joined his brother Katsutoshi in fighting against Tokugawa Ieyasu in 1600, but went to join the Tokugawa attack on Osaka Castle, for which he was awarded his father's fief of Ashimori in Bitchû Province (25,000 koku).
Son: Toshimasa

Ryûzôji retainer

Masanao was originally from Kyoto but had come to Kyushu and been accepted into the service of Ryûzôji Takanobu, whom he admired highly. He gained a reputation as a fearless warrior and at the Battle of Okitanawate he was killed fighting in the rear guard. He is sometimes ranked as one of Takanobu's shi-tenno (see Ryûzôji Shi-tenno).

KIRA Chikasada
Chosokabe retainer

Chikasada was the 2nd son of Chosokabe Kunichika and Chosokabe Motochika's younger brother. In 1563 he was adopted into the Kira family of Tosa Province, one of the Chosokabe's former rivals. In 1575 Ichijô Kanesada attempted to reestablish himself in Tosa Province and Chikasada played an important role in defeating him. Afterwards Chikasada received the Hata district of Tosa but died of illness on 9 August 1576.
Son: Chikazane

Kira Chikazane
Chosokabe retainer

Chikazane was a son of Kira Chikasada and a nephew of Chosokabe Motochika. He was married to a cousin, the daughter of Chosokabe Motochika. He showed much promise from an early age but was hot-tempered and combative. In 1586 he protested the demands placed on him as part of the building of Hideyoshi's Great Buddha (which called for lumber from Tosa). When Chosokabe Nobuchika was killed (1587), Motochika named his 4th son Morichika as his heir. Chikazane protested this decision and demanded that Kagawa Chikazane be chosen instead. He had by this time made enemies with Hisatake Chikanao, a leading Chosokabe retainer, and this most probably worked against him. Motochika responded to his vocal complaints by having him placed under confinement. Chikazane was then ordered to commit suicide.

KISO Yoshiyasu
Shinano warlord

The Kiso mon

Yoshiyasu held Fukushima Castle in the Kiso region of Shinano. He assisted a number of other Shinano warlords in their attempts to contain Takeda Shingen of Kai. When this coalition failed, Yoshiyasu continued to resist Shingen until he was forced to surrender his castle of Fukushima in 1554, at which point he became a Takeda vassal.
Son: Yoshimasa

Kiso Yoshimasa
Takeda retainer
Iyo no kami

Yoshimasa was the son of Kiso Yoshiyasu (1540-1595) and a vassal of Takeda Shingen. He held Fukushima Castle in the Kiso region of Shinano. He was married to one of Shingen's daughters but deserted the Takeda cause in 1582, severing his ties with Katsuyori in favor of Oda Nobunaga. He held off a Takeda army sent to bring him to submission and provided the Oda with assistance in their invasion of Kai and Shinano soon afterwards. He was later deprived of his holdings by Toyotomi Hideyoshi.


The Kitabatake of Ise Province were descended from the Emperor Murakami (926-967). They were ardent supporters of Go-Daigo during the early Nambokucho Period, led as they were by the imperial loyalist Kitabatake Chikafusa. They remained loyal to the Southern Court throughout the Nambokucho and were influential in the Kinai region into the Sengoku Period. This branch of the Kitabatake was descended from Chikafusa's son Akiyoshi. They ruled an area in Ise Province around present-day Ano and Tsu (20-30 miles SE of Kyoto). The Kitabatake fell under the influence of Oda Nobunaga after 1569 and within a decade had been supplanted.

Kitabatake Harumoto
(Kitabatake Chikahira)
Ise warlord

Harumoto was a son of Kitabatake Murachika. He supported Ashikaga Yoshiharu and was allowed to change his name to Harutomo as a result. Harumoto also sent troops to assist the Rokkaku fight the Kyôgoku family while suppressing the Nagano family within his own domain. He was also known for his interest in cultural pursuits, which he shared with his father-in-law, Hosokawa Takakuni
Sons: Tomonori, (Kotsukuri) Tomomasa, Tomochika (d.1584)

Kitabatake Tomonori
Ise warlord
Mino no kami

Tomonori was the son of Kitabatake Harutomo (d.1563) and ruled from Anotsu Castle. He found himself faced with strife within his own domain and was compelled to ward off an invasion by Miyoshi in 1566. He was then threatened by Oda Nobunaga in 1569. The Oda invaded Ise in the late fall of that year and surrounded Anotsu in the 10th month. Although Tomomoriís retainer Toriyao Iwami no kami had prepared supplies in advance to withstand a siege, Tomomori had suffered the defection of his younger brother, Kotsukuri Tomomasa. Tomomori elected to submit and as part of the treaty agreement he was complelled to accept Nobunaga's 2nd son (Nobuo) as heir. He became a monk and died in the 11th month of 1576, quite possibly assassinated by his own retainers. The fate of his son Tomofusa is unclear, but three sons died with him in 1576 while another, Chikanari, was killed fighting Oda forces in 1569.
Sons: Tomofusa, (Nagano) Tomofuji (d.1576), Chikanari (d.1569), Tokumatsu (d.1576), Kanematsu (d.1576)


The Kitabatake of northern Mutsu (what is today Aomori-ken) were related to the Kitabatake of Ise and descended, like them, from the Murakami Genji. This branch of the family, also known as the Namioka-Kitabatake, was descended from Kitabatake Akiie (1317-1338), a son of the famous Kitabatake Chikafusa. During the 16th century they competed with the neighboring Daikouji and Ôura families. Following a damaging internal disturbance in 1562, the power of the family waned, and in 1578 Kitabatake Akimura was attacked by Ôura (Tsugaru) Tamenobu and committed suicide, ending the Kitabatake as daimyô. A cousin of Akimura named Akinori became a retainer of the Nanbu and assumed the name Namioka. Later, his descendants would restore the Kitabatake name.


The Kitajô of Echigo Province were descended from Ôe Hiromoto and were thus related to the Môri (they thus used the same family crest). They served the Nagao and Uesugi in the sengoku period.

Kitajô Takahiro
Uesugi, Takeda, Takigawa retainer
Aki no kami, Tango no kami

Takahiro was a vassal of Uesugi Kenshin though he twice opposed Kenshin's leadership at the instigation of Takeda Shingen (1554, 1567). He later supported Uesugi Kagetora in the Ôtate no ran (1578-79) and was afterwards forced to flee Echigo. He served Takeda Katsuyori until the fall of the Takeda in 1582, at which point he joined Takigawa Kazumasa of the Oda (who had penetrated Kôzuke). When Takigawa was forced to retreat from Kôzuke that same year, Takahiro dropped out of sight.
Son: Kagehiro

Kitajô Kagehiro
Tango no kami

Kagehiro was the son of Kitajô Takahiro and was married to the daughter of Hatakeyama Yoshitaka. With his father he supported Uesugi Kagetora against Uesugi Kagekatsu in the Ôtate no ran. In the course of that conflict he was killed, an enemy warrior running him through with a spear.


KIWAKI Sukemori
Itô retainer

Sukemori was a retainer of Itô Yoshisuke of Hyuga Province. He was considered a capable and loyal retainer and after the Ito fell in 1577 he refused to submit and instead went into hiding. The Shimazu eventually captured him and he was forced to commit suicide on 4/6/1580.


The Kobayakawa mon

The Kobayakawa of Aki Province were descended from Doi Sanehira, a notable figure in the Gempei War (1180-85). Sanehira's grandson (the adopted son of Doi Tôhira), Kagehira, assumed the name Kobayakawa and lived in the Nuta area of Aki Province. By 1260 the Kobayakawa had split into three branches (Nuta, Shinjô, and Takehara) - by the mid-15th Century the Nuta and Shinjô branches had essentially reformed while being at increasing odds with the Takehara branch; by the mid-16th Century, the Nuta and Takehara had reconciled to the extent that they reformed under Kobayakawa Takakage, Môri Motonari's 3rd son. The Kobayakawa grew in influence due to Takakage's close relationship with Toyotomi Hideyoshi.

Kobayakawa Takakage
Chûnagon, Saemon no suke

Takakage was the 3rd son of Môri Motonari and was known in his childhood as Tokyujumaru. He was adopted into the Kobayakawa family in 1550, first assuming control of the Takehara branch of that family and then the Nuta, thus unifying the family. He became, along with his brother Kikkawa Motoharu, a pillar of the Môri house and fought bravely in numerous battles, including Miyajima (1555), Shiga Castle (1564), the siege of Gassan-Toda Castle (1565-66). He was active in the wars with the Ôtomo family, seeing service in the fighting at Moji Castle (1558,1561) and in Chukuzen, and helped reinstate Kôno Michinao in Iyo Province in 1568. Along with Ukita Naoie, Takakage took the Mimura family's Matsuyama Castle in 1575. He participated in the Môri's somewhat desultory defense of the Chugoku against the advancing Oda. Takakage had a long-time correspondence with Toyotomi Hideyoshi, which may have assisted in the peace the Môri and Hideyoshi arrived at in 1582 following the fall of Takamatsu Castle. Takakage played significant roles in the Shikoku and Kyushu Campaigns and was given Chikuzen province in 1587. Takakage led a division of Kyushu troops to Korea in 1592 (numbering some 16,000 in total) and defeated a Chinese force at the Battle of Byôkchekwan near Pyongyang in 1593. He was harried by Korean guerrillas in Chollado province later that year and was forced to retreat. He returned from Korea and in 1595 was named one of the original Tairo and given the title Chûnagon by Hideyoshi, with whom he had become close friends. Being childless, he adopted Hideyoshi's nephew Hideaki as his heir and died at Mihara in Bingo Province in 1597.
Son: Hideaki (Adopted)

Kobayakawa Hideaki
(Hashiba Hidetoshi)
Toyotomi retainer
1577 - 1602

Hideaki was the 5th son of Kinoshita Iesada and initially a ward of Kuroda Yoshitaka before being adopted by Kobayakawa Takakage. He was given the latter's 336,000-koku fief on Kyushu and was named the overall commander (sûdaishû) of the 2nd Korean Campaign (1597-98), with Kuroda acting as his advisor. During the course of the operation he argued with Ishida Mitsunari, and the latter accused him of incompetence of command. As a result of the unsatisfactory results of the campaign, Hideaki was briefly deprived of his Kyushu holdings and moved to a 120,000 koku fief in Echizen (at Kita no shô). Just prior to Hideyoshi's death, Hideaki was restored to his domain in Kyushu (which included lands in Chikuzen, Chikugo, and Buzen). When sides were drawn between Ishida Mitsunari and Tokugawa Ieyasu in 1600, Hideaki initially departed to support the latter, but was waylaid and personally convinced to do otherwise by Ishida himself. Hideaki reluctantly contributed his troops to the reduction of Fushimi Castle, but sent word to Ieyasu assuring him that his loyalties in fact lay with the Tokugawa. During the Battle of Sekigahara (1600), where he commanded nearly 16,000 men, Hideaki betrayed Mitsunari after hours of inaction, decisively tipping the battle in Ieyasu's favor. He next assisted in the capture of Sawayama Castle and after the campaign was awarded a 500,000-koku fief in Bizen and Mimasaka. He was not popular in the western provinces (where he was seen as a traitor) and died just two years later, after having suffered some sort of psychological collapse. His lands were at length absorbed into the Ikeda domain.

Kobayakawa Hidekane
Toyotomi retainer
(Toyotomi Hidekane, Môri Hidekane, Môri Hidetsutsu)

Hidekane was the 9th and last son of Môri Motonari (and one of seven to reach adulthood). He was adopted as a child by Ôta Hidetsuna and was later brought to Kyoto by Toyotomi Hideyoshi and allowed to use the surname 'Toyotomi'. He served in the Kyushu Campaign (1587) and was afterwards given a large fief in Chikugo Province at Kurume. During the Sekigahara Campaign (1600) he commanded troops for the 'western army' and fought under Tachibaba Muneshige at Ôtsu Castle. After the battle he was deprived of his Chikugo holdings and was given a small fief in Nagato Province. He had become a Christian around 1587 and was baptized as 'Simon'. He was married to Ôtomo Sorinís Christian daughter, Maxentia.
Son: Motonobu

KOBORI Masakazu
Tea master
Tôtômi no kami

Masakazu served Tokugawa Ieyasu and in 1600 received a 10,000-koku fief in Ômi Province at Komuro. He became well-know for his cultural talents, which included painting, poetry, and flower arrangement. He was perhaps most renowned for his skill at the tea ceremony, which led to his style becoming known as the enshû-ryu (Enshû was the Chinese name for Tôtômi Province). In view of his ability, Masakazu was tasked with instructing shôgun Tokugawa Iemitsu in the ways of the tea ceremony.


The Kodama were originally from Musashi Province but moved to Aki Province during the Kamakura period and at length became retainers of the Môri.

Kodama Naritada
(Kodama Saburôemon)
Môri retainer

Naritada was the 2nd son of Kodama Motozane and became the head of the Kodama family. He was a popular and effective administrator and advisor for Môri Motonari and Môri Takamoto, though he was defeated in battle in 1544 by Amako forces under Amako Kunihisa.
Son: Motoyoshi

Kodama Narikata
Môri retainer
Suô no kami

Naritaka was the 3rd son of Kodama Motozane. He was present for the Amako's siege of Koriyama Castle (1540) and later became a leader in the Môri navy, seeing service in various campaigns against the Amako and Ôtomo.

KOIDE Hideharu
(Koide Masaharu, Kode Hideharu)
Toyotomi retainer
1539 - 1604
Harima no kami, Uenosuke

The Koide mon

Hideharu married the sister of Toyotomi Hideyoshi's wife and was awarded a 60,000-koku fief in Izumi. He supported Ishida Mitsunari during the Sekigahara Campaign but was too infirm to go to battle himself.
Sons: Yoshimasa, Hideie

Koide Yoshimasa
Toyotomi retainer
1565 - 1613
Harima no kami, Shinano no kami, Yamato no kami

Yoshimasa was the son of Koide Hideharu and the nephew of Toyotomi Hideyoshi's wife. At first the lord of Tatsuno castle in Harima, he was granted 53,000 koku worth of land in Tajima in 1595 following Hideyoshi's censure of a number of Totomi Hidetsugu's intimates. He sided with Ishida Mitsunari during the Sekigahara Campaign (1600) and joined in the siege of Tanabe in Tajima. After Mitsunari was defeated, Yoshimasa kept his lands thanks to the efforts of his younger brother Hideie, who had fought on the Tokugawa side.
Sons: Yoshihide (1586-1668), (Ise no kami) Yoshichika

KOJIMA Motoshige
Jinbo, Uesugi retainer
Rokurôzaemon no jô

Motoshige was at first a retainer of the Jinbo of Etchû Province, then joined Uesugi Kenshin sometime after 1560. He was entrusted with Toyama Castle and battled with Etchû ikko-ikki in 1572. He later sided with the Oda but lost Toyama to them nonetheless.

Uesugi retainer

Yatarô was a life-long retainer of Uesugi Kenshin and was noted for his bravery, and especially for an incident at one of the battles at Kawanakajima. At that time he was sent as a messenger to Takeda Shingen but once in the Takeda camp was set upon by a guard dog intentionally loosed by the Takeda. Yatarô held the dog down while calmly delivering his message, then killed the animal before returning to the Uesugi camp. He was nicknamed Ôni Yatarô, or 'Devil Yatarô'.

KOKUBAN Morishige
Date retainer
Mikawa no kami

Morishige was a son of Date Harumune and was adopted by Kokuban Noto no kami Moriuji. He distinguished himself at the Battle of Hitadori Bridge under Date Masamune (1585). In 1590, when Masamune submitted to Toyotomi Hideyoshi, Morishige went as a hostage and was placed in the custody of Gamô Ujisato. In 1599 Masamune came to doubt Morishige's loyalty and decided to have him assassinated. Morishige learned of the peril he was in and fled the Date domain, finding service with the Satake clan and thereafter living in Yokote Castle.

KOMAI Masatake
Takeda retainer

Masatake served Takeda Shingen. While he was primarily involved in diplomatic affairs, he acted as Shingen's vanguard in a 1542 campaign into Shinano Province that brought down Fukuyo Castle.
Son: Masanao

Komai Masanao
Takeda, Tokugawa retainer

Masanao was a son of Komai Masatake and at first served the Takeda. When Fukuzawa Castle was taken from the Hôjô family in 1571, Masanao was established there. After the fall of the Takeda family in 1582, he found service within the Tokugawa and became a retainer of Sakikabara Yasumasa.

Saitô retainer

Genta, a retainer of Saito Yoshitatsu, took Saitô Dosan's head in the course of the fighting at the Battle of Nagaragawa (1557).

Takeda retainer

Tadamoto's family had been daimyô in Shinano Province before submitting to Takeda Shingen. Tadamoto served Yamagata Masakage, of whom he might have been a cousin. He fought at the Battles of Mimasetoge (1569) and Nagashino (1575), afterwards becoming a commander of infantry. He attempted to lead a relief force to Takato Castle, under siege from Oda Nobutada, in 1582 but was killed in the attempt.

KONISHI Yukinaga
Ukita, Toyotomi retainer
Settsu no kami, Takumi no suke

The Konishi mon

Yukinaga is thought to have been the son of a Sakai merchant. He came to serve the Ukita of Bizen Province and first met Toyotomi Hideyoshi during the latter's Chugoku Campaign (1577-1582) while acting as a Ukita negotiator. Hideyoshi was impressed with Yukinaga and convinced him to join his own forces. Following the Kyushu Campaign in 1587, Yukinaga was given Udo Castle and half of Higo province (worth some 240,000 koku), with the other half going to Kato Kiyomasa. The two neighbors came to be at odds over the issue of Christianity, which Yukinaga embraced and which Kiyomasa persecuted within his half of Higo. Yukinaga was named one of the chief commanders of the 1st Korean Campaign (along with his rival Kato Kiyomasa) in 1592, and led an army from Pusan as far as P'yongyang before being forced back by Chinese reinforcements and poor supplies. He favored peace in Korea, another point on which he differed with Kato Kiyomasa, and during the 2nd Campaign (1597-98) assisted in negotiations. Following the death of Hideyoshi in 1598, Konishi gravitated into Ishida Mitsunari's camp and supported him against Tokugawa Ieyasu. He led 4,000 men to the Battle of Sekigahara (1600), where his troops would see heavy fighting. Following the defeat of the 'western' army, Yukinaga was captured and exectued in Kyoto along with Ishida Mitsunari and Ankokuji Ekei. He was a Christian (and known in this capacity as Dom Agostinho) and had therefore decided not to commit suicide following Sekigahara.
Son: (Sô) Yoshitomo


The Kôno mon

The Konô of Iyo Province claimed descent from Iyo-shinnô, a son of the Emperor Kammu (782-805). Powerful in Iyo Province for centuries, they supported Minamoto Yoritomo in the Gempei War (1180-85) and played a notable role in the Mongol Invasions of the 13th Century. During the Nambokucho Period they at first supported the Ashikaga, then shifted their loyalty to the Southern Court. Their hold on Iyo Province was steadily weakened during the early Sengoku Period and at length their domain fell to the Chosokabe of Tosa Province. An ill-fated attempt by Kôno loyalists in 1600 to restore their clan to Iyo with Môri support ended in defeat at the hands of the Katô.

Kôno Michinao

Michinao was the son of Michihisa and became the head of the Konô in 1519. He suffered the revolt of a number of retainers in 1523 and 1530 and in 1539 an attack by Hosokawa Harumoto. Michinao's difficulties continued with two Ôuchi attacks on Iyo's coastal areas in 1541 (Ômishima) and 1544 (Kutsunashima), though these were also repulsed. He apparently considered turning over the leadership of the Konô to a relative (Konô Naomasa) but abandoned this idea when his retainers began to fight amongst themselves. He died of illness in September 1572. Michinao was known to have had some skill with waka poetry.

Kôno Michinobu
Iyo no kami

Michinobu was a younger son of Kôno Ômi no kami Michiyoshi (d.1579) and succeeded Michinao. He suffered the abortive rebellion of his vassal Wada Michioki in 1554 and an Ôtomo campaign against him in 1565 which was evidently inspired by his alliance with Môri Motonari. In 1568 the Konô were attacked by Utsunomiya Toyotsuna, who had the supported of the Chosokabe clan of Tosa. The Môri came to assist the Konô and at length Utsunomiya was defeated and forced to sue for peace. The victory was afterwards reported to the shôgunate, and a note of congratulations was sent from Ashikaga Yoshiaki. That same year Michinobu had taken ill and was forced to give up his duties as lord, handing them to his son Michinao.
Son: Michinao

Kôno Michinao
Danjô-shôsuke, Iyo no kami

Michinao was a son of Konô Michinobu and became lord when the latter fell ill. Though very young, Michinao acted as the lord of the Konô with the assistance of his relatives and retainers. The Konô lands were attacked by the Miyoshi of Awa in 1572 and in 1575 troops were sent to assist the Môri in their budding campaign against the Oda. Chosokabe Motochika launched an invasion of Iyo in 1581 that brought down a number of Konô castles. Michinao appealed to the Môri but they were too occupied by the Oda to spare and troops and by 1583 Michinao was forced to surrender. In 1585 he had once again to surrender, this time to the invading forces of Toyotomi Hideyoshi. He was deprived of his domain and went to live in Aki Province, where he died of illness without an heir.

KONÔE Sakihisa
(Konôe Harutsugu, Konôe Sakitsugu, Ryûzan)
Imperial regent
Kampaku (1554), Sangû, Daijôdaijin

Sakihisa was the son of Konôe Taneie, a close confident of shôgun Ashikaga Yoshiteru, and was named Kampaku in 1554 (this being during the reign of Emperor Go-Nara). He later spent some years in Echigo as a guest of Uesugi Kenshin before returning to Kyoto in 1565, where he composed the Saga-ki. Relations between Sakihisa and Oda Nobunaga (who had entered Kyoto in 1568) gradually soured, until the former felt compelled to flee to Satsuma in 1573. While in Satsuma he occupied himself with teaching poetry to Shimazu Narihisa. Thanks in part to the intervention of Hashiba (Toyotomi) Hideyoshi, Sakihisa was able to retun to Kyoto in 1575. He repaired his relations with Nobunaga and acted as a go-between when Oda and Kennyô Kosa were negotiating the surrender of the Honganji in 1580. He changed his name to Ryûzan in 1582 and took up the tonsure but remained active in court life, adopting Toyotomi Hideyoshi in order to provide the latter with a link to the Fujiwara in 1586. Hideyoshi in turn adopted Konôe's daughter and she later became a consort to Go-Yôzei.
Son: Nobusuke

Konôe Nobusuke
(Konôe Nobutada)
Imperial regent
Saidaijin, Kampaku (1605)

Nobusuke was the son of Konôe Sakihisa. He was named the Saidaijin and when he learned that Toyotomi Hideyoshi planned to name himself various noted ranks, pointed out that he would require Fujiwara blood to do as he wished - to which Hideyoshi replied by being adopted by Sakihisa (becoming Nobusuke's elder brother in the process). Nobusuke angered Hideyoshi by being too eager to join the Korean Expedition and was exiled to Satsuma in 1594 for two years. He was later allowed to return and was named Kampaku in 1605 and adopted as heir as son of Emperor Go-Yôzei. He was a noted man of culture and especially of prose. He was known as Konôe Nobutada after 1602.
Son: Nobuhiro (adopted; 1593-1643)

KORIKI Kiyonaga
Tokugawa retainer
Kwatchi no kami

Kiyonaga served Tokugawa Ieyasu and in 1565 was named one of three commissioners (bugyô) for Mikawa Province. In 1590 he received a 20,000-koku fief at Iwatsuki in Musashi Province. During Toyotomi Hideyoshi's 1st Korean Campaign (1592-93) Kiyonaga was tasked with building ships to ferry Ieyasu to Kyushu.

KÔSAI Motochika
(Kôsai Motonaga)
Hosokawa retainer

Motochika was an important Hosokawa retainer and was given the governership of Sanuki Province by Hosokawa Masamoto around 1494. He defended Masamoto against the forces of Miyoshi Yukinaga in 1506 but came to be at odds with his lord. Around this time, Masanaga had censured Motochika for heavy-handed efforts to secure personal income from Yamashiro Province. Motochika supported Sumiyuki (one of Masamoto's adopted sons) and in 1507 the two attacked Masamoto's home and killed him in his bath. Sumiyuki was thus established as Masanaga's successor but this lasted barely a month. Masamoto's adopted son Sumimoto turned to his ally, Miyoshi Nagateru, and the latter defeated and killed Motochika and Sumiyuki in battle near Kyoto.

KOSAKA Masanobu
(Kasuga Danjô no suke, Kosaka Toratsuna, Kosaka Gensuke)
Takeda retainer

Masanobu was the son of Kasuga Ôsumi no kami. He served Takeda Shingen first as a page, and then as a general, being named the keeper of Komoro Castle in Shinano. Later he was tasked with guarding the northernmost reaches of the Takeda domain and given Kaizu, a castle in Shinano he was ordered to fortify in 1560. According to the Koyo gunkan, he played an important role during the 4th Battle of Kawanakajima in 1561, leading a night raid on Uesugi Kenshin's camp. While they arrived only to find that the Uesugi had already moved out and attacked Shingen's army on the Hachiman Plain, Masanobu and Baba Nobufusa's men were able to arrive in time to save Shingen from destruction. During the Nagashino Campaign (1575) he was probing Uesugi Kenshin's defenses in northern Shinano and hastily marched south to protect Takeda Katsuyori's retreat when he learned of the latter's defeat. He died at Kaizu of illness in 1578. He has been attributed with at least part of the preparation of the Koyo Gunkan, a record of the events surrounding the Takeda since the rise of Shingen, although the bulk (if not all) of the text was probably written by Obata Kagenori years later.
Son: Masazumi

Kosaka Masazumi
Takeda retainer

Masazumi was the eldest son of Kosaka Masanobu. He helped screen Nagashino castle while the Battle of Nagashino was being fought to the west and was killed in the fighting.

KOSOKABE Chikayasu
Chosokabe retainer
Aki no kami

Chikayasu was the third son of Chosokabe Kunichika and a younger brother of Chosokabe Motochika. He was adopted by Kosokabe Chikahide in 1558 and following the defeat of the Aki family in 1569 was given Aki Castle. He went on to serve Motochika loyally throughout his career. He played a notable role in the Chosokabe victory at the Nakatomigawa in 1582 and captured Tsu Castle, afterwards being given Tomioka Castle in Awa Povince. He was known as a diplomat as well as soldier, and worked at arranging a Chosokabe-Oda alliance. He sent messages to Oda Nobuo and Tokugawa Ieyasu when the latter two were facing Toyotomi Hideyoshi in 1584. After these endeavors, his talents became widely known. He died of illness in Nagato Province en route to join the Korean Campaign in 1593. His eldest son Chikauji had also died of illness the previous year. A younger son, Sadachika, left Tosa following the Sekigahara Campaign and settled in Shimôsa Province.
Sons: Chikauji (d.1592), Sadachika (Sakon-tayuu; ?-?)

Kitabatake, Oda retainer

Tomomasa was a younger brother of Kitabatake Tomomori of Ise and held Kotsukuri Castle. He betrayed his elder brother by entering into a secret agreement with Oda Nobunaga before the latter invaded Ise in 1569. During the Komaki Campaign he sided with Oda Nobuo and in response, Toyotomi Hideyoshi confiscated his domain. Tomomasa's fortunes after this event are unknown.

KUCHIBA Michiyoshi
Môri retainer
Shimotsuke no kami

Michiyoshi was a younger son of Shiji Motoyoshi. He served Môri Motonari in a number of campaigns, including Miyajima (1555) and Gassan-Toda (1565-66) and was later a chief retainer of Môri Takamoto. He was married to a daughter of Fukuhara Hirotoshi.
Son: Haruyoshi

KÛKI Sadataka
Shima warlord

Sadataka was based in the Ago district of Shima and had a reputation as a pirate. He claimed remote descent from Fujiwara Tadahira, an important court noble of the 9th-10th century.
Son: Yoshitaka

Kûki Yoshitaka
Shima warlord, Oda, Toyotomi retainer
Ôsumi no kami

Yoshitaka was the second son of Kûki Sadataka and gave his loyalty to Oda Nobunaga sometime around 1570. He lent his naval strength to the Oda at Nagashima in 1574 and was defeated attempting to blockade the Ishiyama Honganji in 1576 by Môri admiral Murakami Takeyoshi. Nobunaga commissioned him to design warships capable of defeating the Môri and he duly produced six massive warships that he used to win the 2nd Battle of Kizugawaguchi. Following Nobunaga's death in 1582, Kuki served Hideyoshi and was given Toba Castle in Ise. He fought in the Komaki Campaign (1584), assisting Takigawa Kazumasu with the capture of Kanie (one of Oda Nobuo's castles in Ise) and led ships during the Invasion of Kyushu (1587). In 1590 he joined the campaign to subdue the Hôjô and teamed with Chosokabe Motochika, Wakizaka Yasuharu, and Kato Yoshiaki in naval maneuvers along the Izu and Sagami coast, including the siege of Shimoda. He went on to command ships during the Invasions of Korea (1592-93, 97-98) and was defeated along with Kato Yoshiaki by the Korean admiral Yi Sun Shin at Angolpo (June 1592). In 1600 he decided to side with Ishida Mitsunari against Tokugawa Ieyasu, although his son Moritaka elected to leave to fight for Ieyasu. When word reached Yoshitaka that Mitsunari had been defeated at Sekigahara, he committed suicide.
Son: Moritaka

Kûki Moritaka
Toyotomi, Tokugawa retainer

Moritaka was the eldest son of Yoshitaka, and while the latter chose to support Ishida Mitsunari in 1600, Moritaka pragmatically went off to join Ieyasu. As the result, and despite his father's ill-fated decision, the Kûki were confirmed in Shima and had their income set at 46,000 koku. Moritaka later commanded ships during the 1614 and 1615 sieges of Osaka Castle.

Môri retainer

Nobunao was the son of Kumagai Motonao, who had died in battle under Takeda Motoshige. He held Takamtsu Castle and was locally powerful in Aki Province. He allied with Môri Motonari in the 1540's and served in a number of his military endeavors, later rendering service to Môri Terumoto.

KUNOE Masazane
(Kunohe Masazane)

Masazane, a former vassal of Nanbu Nobunao, refused to yield to Toyotomi Hideyoshi in 1590 and the following year his Kunoe castle was taken by Gamô Ujisato. This marked the last real resistance to Hideyoshi's hegemony. The surviving Kunoe were afterwards dispossessed.

KURITA Tsuruhisa
Takeda retainer

Tsuruhisa was at first a minor Shinano warlord who held a domain in the area of the Zenkôji in northern Shinano. Initially aligned with Uesugi Kenshin of Echigo, he sided with Takeda Shingen in 1555 and was attacked by Kenshin as a result. He was later moved from Zenkôji to Kofu in Kai Province, but in 1570 was restablished in Shinano. Nine years later he was assigned to Takatenjin Castle in Tôtômi and was killed when the castle fell to Tokugawa Ieyasu in 1581.

KURODA (Harima)

The Kuroda mon

The Kuroda were descended from the Sasaki family although their early history is hazy. They emerged in the Sengoku Period as retainers of the Odera of Harima Province. After 1577 they entered the service of Oda Nobunaga and through the efforts of Kuroda Yoshitaka, a close companion of Toyotomi Hideyoshi, they rose in importance. Yoshitaka and Nagamasa supported Tokugawa Ieyasu in the Sekigahara Campaign and afterwards their family held a considerable fief in Chikuzen Province.

Kuroda Mototaka
Odera retainer

Mototaka was originally from Bizen Province but entered the service of the Odera of Harima. He helped his son Yoshitaka convince the Odera to submit to Oda Nobunaga in 1577.
Son: Yoshitaka

Kuroda Yoshitaka
(Kuroda Kanbei, Kuroda Jôsui)
Toyotomi retainer

Yoshitaka was the eldest son of Kuroda Mototaka. He began his career as a retainer of the Odera clan of Harima Province and held Himeji Castle, which he defended against the Akamatsu in 1569. Noting the rise of the Oda, Yoshitaka was quick to give his allegiance to Nobunaga and in 1577 turned Himeji over to Toyotomi Hideyoshi, of whom he became a close companion. He was sent as an emissary to the rebellious Araki Murashige in 1578, but was taken prisoner and detained for the better part of a year, suffering a crippling injury when he finally escaped. Following the Kyushu Campaign in 1587 he was given a 120,000-koku fief in Buzen and during the 2nd Korean Campaign was assigned to act as chief advisor to the leader of the invasion force, the young Kobayakawa Hideaki. During the campaign he was insulted by Ishida Mitsunari, who claimed Yoshitaka was more interested in mastering the game of Go then fighting the enemy, and in 1600 he gave his support to Tokugawa Ieyasu. His son Nagamasa went to serve in Ieyasu's army while Yoshitaka scrounged together a force to fight on Kyushu. He managed to link hands with Kato Kiyomasa (who held a considerable domain in Higo) and together the two of them brought down a number of castles affiliated with the 'western' forces in Bungo and Chikuzen. After Sekigahara Yoshitaka essentially retired, though he used his political influence afterwards to arrange for the life of Ôtomo Yoshimune to be spared, and helped the Shimazu keep their domain. He was a Christian, having been baptized in 1585 as Dom Simeão,. This directly benefited the foreign establishment in Japan at least once: in early 1587, with the Shimazu about to conquer all of Bungo, Kuroda agreed to answer a call for help from Luis Frois and dispatched a ship to rescue the members of the Jesuit college in Funai. Yoshitaka is perhaps best-known today, in addition to his many notable qualities, for his friendship with Hideyoshi.
Son: Nagamasa

Kuroda Nagamasa
Toyotomi, Tokugawa retainer
1568 - 1623
Kai no kami

Nagamasa was the son of Kuroda Yoshitaka and was born in the 12th month of 1568. He served Toyotomi Hideyoshi in his later campaigns, leading 6,000 men in the 1st Korean Campaign (1592-93). He acted as a rearguard of sorts when the Japanese finally withdrew from Korea in 1598, holding the port of Pusan open until all his countrymen could embark. He was given a 120,000-koku fief at Nakatsu in Buzen Province. In 1600 he and his father sided with Tokugawa Ieyasu against Ishida Mitsunari. While Yoshitaka fought with Ishida's allies on Kyushu, Nagamasa led 5,400 in the Tokugawa vanguard at Sekigahara and was afterwards praised for his efforts by Ieyasu. In the aftermath of the Tokugawa victory, he was given a 520,000-koku fief in Chikuzen Province at Najima and built Fukuoka Castle. He contributed to the construction of Edo Castle, personally overseeing the building of the keep. He next went on to serve in the Osaka Castle Campaigns and fought under Tokugawa Hidetada. His son Uemon no suke Tadayuki assisted in the defeat of the Shimabara Rebellion (1638). Like his father, Nagamasa had been a Christian but readily gave it up when ordered to do so by the Tokugawa.
Son: Tadayuki

KURODA Hidetada
Nagao retainer
Izumi no kami

Hidetada served the Nagao of Echigo and was one of the key supporters death of Nagao Harukage after the death of the latter's father,Tamekage. He committed suicide when his castle of Niiyama was brought down by Takanashi Sadayori, a supporter of Nagao Kagetora (Uesugi Kenshin).

Kôno retainer
Izumo on kami

The Kurushima mon

Michiyasu was a valuable retainer of Kôno Michinao and held Kurushima Castle in Iyo Province. He commanded naval ships for Michinao and was considered a pillar of the Kôno house. He died in 1567 of illness.
Son: Michifusa

Kurushima Michifusa
Konô, Chosokabe, Toyotomi retainer
Izumo no kami

Michifusa was a son of Kurushima Michiyasu and served the Kôno until their defeat at the hands of Chosokabe Motochika in 1580. When the Chosokabe were in the process of being defeated in turn by Toyotomi Hideyoshi in 1585, Michiyasu gave his allegiance to the latter. He was confirmed in a 12,000-koku fief in Iyo province (Kuroshima) and went on to serve as a naval commander for Hideyoshi. He commanded ships in the Odawara (1590) and Korean Campaigns and fought in a number of naval contests with the Korean Admiral Yi Sun Shin. He was defeated and killed by Yi in the Battle of Myongyang (1597).
Son: Yasuchika (1582-1612)

KUWANA Kazutaka
Chosokabe retainer

Kazutaka served in Chosokabe Motochika's later campaigns on Shikoku and when Toyotomi Hideyoshi invaded the island, he was given an audience with the latter as a messenger. He served at the Battle of Hetsugigawa in Kyushu (1586) and in Hideyoshi's invasion of that island the following year, seeing action at Takajo. He went on to lead men in the 1st Korean Campaign. Following the Sekigahara Campaign (1600) he abandoned his castle and took up service with the Toda family. When Chosokabe Morichika joined the defenders of Osaka Castle in 1614, Kazutaka accompanied him. He fought with distinction in the two Osaka Sieges but was killed in the Battle of Yao in 1615.


The Kyôgoku were descended from Sasaki Ujinobu, one of whose descendants settled at Kyôgoku Castle in Ômi Province and assumed its name. They were shaken by the rebellion of the Asai in the early sengoku period, an event that brought them into conflict with the Asakura of Echizen as well.

Kyôgoku Takayoshi
Ashikaga retainer

Takayoshi was a son of Kyogoku Takahide and a nominal vassal of the Asai. Following Yoshiteru's murder in 1565, Takayoshi attended to Ashikaga Yoshiaki. He fell out of favor with Oda Nobunaga after Yoshiaki's banishment from Kyoto in 1573.
Sons: Takatsugu, Takatomo

Kyôgoku Takatsugu
Oda, Toyotomi retainer
Wakasa no kami

Takatsugu first served Oda Nobunaga, whose niece he married. At the time of Akechi Mitsuhide's rebellion against Nobunaga in 1582, Takatsugu attempted to take advantage of the situation with an abortive attack on Nagahama Castle in Ômi Province. Mitsuhide was soon destroyed by Toyotomi Hideyoshi at Yamazaki, however, and Takatsugu found himself isolated. He therefore sought the protection of Hori Hidemasa, who conveyed him into the service of Shibata Katsuie. When Katsuie was defeated by Hideyoshi and committed suicide in 1583, Takatsugu fled to the estate of Takeda Motoaki (who was married to Takatsugu's sister). Motoaki was killed soon afterwards on Toyotomi Hideyoshi's orders, but Takatsugu was given a fief even as his sister was to taken as a concubine to Hideyoshi at Osaka Castle. Perhaps due to this connection, Takatsugu enjoyed great favor by Hideyoshi and his income was progressively raised from 2,500 koku to 10,000, 28,000, and finally 60,000-koku and Ôtsu Castle in Ômi Province. He was present for the Odawara Campaign (1590). In 1600 he sided with Tokugawa Ieyasu and as a result was besieged at Ôtsu by a 'western' army of 15,000 men. After a few days fighting he surrendered and fled to Mt. Kôya, though he was later granted a 92,000-koku fief in Wakasa Province at Obama.
Sons: Tadataka, Tadamasa

copyright 2005 F. W. Seal