The Jinbo family of Etchû Province, at one time possible retainers of the Hatakeyama, were almost constantly at war with local rivals such as the Shiina and the ikko-ikki. Defeated by Nagao Tamekage in 1520, they enjoyed a brief period of local power under Jinbo Nagamoto but when Uesugi Kenshin sided with Shiina they lost their castle, Toyama, and at length became Uesugi vassals.
Echizen no kami
Yoshimune became the head of his family in 1501. He was a rival of the Nagao of Etchû and fought a number of battles with them, including Shinjô in 1520. In that instance, Yoshimune was defeated by Nagao Tamekage after setting out to attack the latter's Shinjô Castle. With his army broken, Yoshimune committed suicide at Fukagamiyama. After his death, the leadership of the weakened Jinbo appears to have passed to his younger brother Yoshiaki, and then to Nagamoto, Yoshimune's son.
Etchû no kami
Nagamoto is thought to have been the son of Jinbo Yoshimune and ruled from Toyama Castle. He was often at war with the Shiina family and attacked the latter's Matsukura Castle in 1559. Shiina Yasutane called on the assistance of Uesugi Kenshin of Echigo Province, who captured Toyama in the spring of 1560 (Eiroku-3 3/3). Nagamoto fled to Masuyama Castle and continued to resist the Shiina from his remaining holdings. In 1562 Nagamoto again attacked the Shiina, and once again Uesugi Kenshin led an army into Etchû and defeated Nagamoto in the 10th month of that year. When Takeda Shingen became involved in Etchû's fortunes after 1566, Uesugi Kenshin sided with Nagamoto for a time - though internal strife within the Jinbo at length brought about the demise of the family as daimyô. The Jinbo were afterwards Uesugi vassals.
Jinbo, Uesugi, Sasa retainer
Aki no kami
Ujiharu became one of Uesugi Kenshin's retainers following the Jinbo's submission to the latter after 1570. He later joined Sasa Narimasa but became a ronin after Sasa was sent to Higo in 1587.
The Jô of Higo Province were descended from the Kikuchi family. They fought with Imagawa Sadayô during the Nambukucho Period in support of the Kikuchi and one of their lords, Takeaki (a trusted retainer of Kikuchi Takemitsu), was killed in battle in 1372. After Toyotomi Hideyoshi's conquest of Kyushu in 1587, the Jô were made to surrender their lands in Higo and at length became retainers of the Shimazu.
See SATOMURA JÔHA
(Hatakayama Yoshiharu, Uesugi Yoshiharu)
Aki no kami
Masashige was a son of Hatakeyama Yoshimune and fled to the Uesugi domain as a result of turmoil within Noto Province. He served Uesugi Kenshin and later Kagekatsu with distinction and was active in the fighting with the forces of Oda Nobunaga in Etchû. His son Yoshisane was one of the hostages Kagekatsu provided to Hideyoshi as a measure of his good faith. He was married to Uesugi Kagekatsu's younger sister.
Oda, Toyotomi retainer
Shigemochi was a retainer of Oda Nobuo and held Kaganoi Castle in Mino. He served under Nobuo's standard in the Komaki Campaign and at the Battle of Nagaukte (1584). Following the Oda-Tokugawa/Toyotomi peace (1585), Shigemochi went to work for Hideyoshi.
Chikakazu was the second son of Chosokabe Motochika and was adopted into the Kagawa family. When his father indicated that he would not name Chikakazu as heir following the death of elder brother Nobuchika in 1586, Chikakazu became despondent and retreated from active life. He died the following year of illness.
Tsunechika served Asai Nagamasa and was a senior retainer. He fought well at the Battle of Anegawa in 1570 but was killed in action when the Asai's Odani Castle fell to Oda Nobunaga in 1573.
Yûsho was the son of Kaihô Tsunachika, a senior retainer of the Asai of Ômi Province. He is said to have studied under the famous painter Kanô Motonobu, though it may have in fact been Motonobu's son Eitoku. He was patronized by Toyotomi Hideyoshi and the emperor Go-Yôzei. His paintings were often colorful and in the Kanô style, though he was also proficient in the traditional monochromatic ink style employed by many Zen monks/painters. Yûsho died in Kyoto in 2/1615
Kaisen was originally from Mino Province and may have been related to the Toki family. He fled Mino to Owari Province following the rise to power of Saitô Yoshitatsu and at length made his way to Kai Province. There he made the acquaintance of Takeda Shingen, who being much impressed with him made Kaisen the head abbot of the Irin-ji in Kofu. In 1582, during the Oda and Tokugawa invasion of the Takeda domain, the Irin-ji was accused by the invaders of sheltering Rokkaku Yoshiharu (a former enemy of the Oda) and was burned along with all its monks. Kaisen is remembered for his calm demeanor in the face of their impending destruction, advising his monks, we are told, to set their minds at ease so that even the fire might be thought of as cool and refreshing.
Ôta, Yûki retainer
Mino no kami
Masakage was the second son of Ôta Sukemasa. Masakage joined his father and elder brother into exile following the defeat at 2nd Konodai (1564) and took up with the Satake. Masakage later became a retainer of Yûki Hideyasu and accompanied him to Echizen in 1607. Despite his advanced years, Masakage attended the sieges of Osaka Castle on the Tokugawa side.
Yamana, Toyotomi retainer
Oki no kami
Mitsunari was the son of Kakiya Tsugunari and at first served the Yamana of Inaba Province. He came to hold great influence within Inaba and Tajima Provinces while assuming almost an independent posture regarding the Yamana. When the Toyotomi army entered Inaba in 1580 and threatened Mitsunari's Yoida Castle, he submitted and became a retainer of Miyabe Tsugimasu. He afterwards resided until his death from advanced age (he may have been over 80) at Uradome in Inaba
The Kakizaki of Echigo Province claimed descent from Nitta Yoshisada. The descendants of one of Yoshisada's sons, Yoshimune, established themselves at Kakizaki in Echigo. In the early 16th Century, the Kakizaki supported the Jojo when they clashed with Nagao Tamekage but came to serve the latter's son, Kagetora (Uesugi Kenshin). They remained in Uesugi service into the Edo Period.
Izumi no Kami
Kageie was the son of Kakizaki Toshiie. He joined Uesugi Kenshin early in the latter's career and held Tatejiro Castle and various posts after Kenshin assumed control of Echigo. Kageie led the Uesugi vanguard at the 4th Battle of Kawanakajima (1561)and clashed with the forces of Takeda Nobushige, who was killed in the fighting. In 1570 his son Haruie was sent as a hostage to Odawara Castle when Kenshin and the Hôjô struck a peace treaty. He was later charged with plotting with the Oda and was made to commit suicide at Mizushima, possibly with his son Haruie. Kageie's lands were inherited by Kakizaki Noto no kami Noriie.
Sons: Haruie (d.1575?), Noriie
See: MATSUMAE YOSHIHIRO
Amako, Toyotomi retainer
Musashi no kami, Shinjûrô
Korenori assumed the name Kamei as a young man as that Amako retainer family had been left without an heir after the death of Kamei Hidetsuna in battle with the Môri. Korenori joined Yamanaka Shikanosuke (to whom he was connected by virtue of marrying the younger sister of Shikanosuke's wife) in fighting to revive the fortunes of the Amako (who had fallen to the Môri in 1566). When the Amako cause finally died (along with Amako Katsuhisa and, later, Shikanosuke) with the fall of Kozuki Castle in 1578, Korenori became a retainer of Toyotomi Hideyoshi. He received Shikano Castle in Inaba and participated in the Kyushu Campaign (1587). He supported Tokugawa Ieyasu's cause during the Sekigahara Campaign and afterwards saw his income increased from 13,000 koku to 43,000 koku.
Oda, Toyotomi retainer
Izumo no kami, Nagato no kami
Nagachika was at first a retainer of the Saitô of Mino, then joined Oda Nobunaga around 1559. He fought in two of the Oda's attacks on the Nagashima ikko-ikki (1573 and 1574) and at the Battle of Nagashino (1575) joined Sakai Tadatsugu in raiding the Takeda forces at Tobigasuyama. That same year he lent his strength to the destruction of Echizen's ikko-ikki. Following Nobunaga's death in 1582, Nagachika at first sided with Shibata Katsuie, then gave his loyalty to Toyotomi Hideyoshi. In 1585 he was dispatched to destroy the Anegakoji of Hida Province and was afterwards given their castle of Takayama. He later provided his support to Tokugawa Ieyasu during the Sekigahara Campaign (1600) and led 1,140 men to the Battle of Sekigahara.
Son: Yoshishige (Adopted)
See ODA NOBUTAKA
Oda, Toyotomi, Tokugawa retainer
Masayoshi was a son of Kanematsu Kiyohide. He was at first a minor retainer of Oda Nobunaga, and after 1582, of Oda Nobukatsu. He was dismissed from Nobukatsu's service in 1590 and went to serve Toyotomi Hideyoshi, who gave him some land in Mino Province. In 1593 he went to serve Toyotomi Hidetsugu but, when the latter was made to commit suicide in 1595, he went back to Hideyoshi's service. After 1600 he managed to ingratiate himself with the Tokugawa and served Tokugawa Yoshinao in Owari Province. He is best remembered for an incident that occurred earlier in his career. While in the service of Nobunaga in 1573, he was present for the fall of the Asakura of Echizen. At a place called Toneyama, Masayoshi pursued a lone enemy horseman into the mountains, whence he killed him and took his head. However, during his pursuit he lost his shoes and his bare feet became dyed red with the mountain soil. When Nobunaga saw this, he gave Masayoshi the ashinaka (un-heeled Japanese sandals) that had been hanging from his waist, saying "I hadnít thought that something such as this would come in handy at a time like this."
Saitô, Shibata, Akechi, Oda, Toyotomi, Tokugawa retainer.
Kani Saizô was originally a vassal of the Saitô in Mino province. When Saitô Tatsuoki was defeated by Nobunaga, Saizô joined the Shibata clan, which he later left to serve Akechi Mitsuhide. After Mitsuhide's defeat at the Battle of Yamazaki, he joined Oda Nobutaka until Nobutaka, too, was killed (1583). Saizô eventually joined Toyotomi Hidetsugu, and then, following Hidetsugu's fall, went to serve Maeda Toshiie. Eventually, he ended up with Fukushima Masanori, under whom he would serve at the Battle of Sekigahara. He is best remembered for his taking of 16 heads at Sekigahara - probably the most for any one single warrior at that battle. Rather than bring the heads back to camp one by one, Saizô marked them as his own by stuffing their mouths with bamboo grass. It is said that upon hearing of his deeds at the post battle gathering, Tokugawa Ieyasu nicknamed him 'Sasasaizô' - Bamboo grass Saizô.
Eitoku was the son of Kano Shôei (1514-1562) and carried on the Kano school of painting as established by Kano Masanobu (1434-1530). Eitoku was likely tutored at a young age by his talented grandfather Motonobu (1476-1559), who introduced him to shôgun Ashikaga Yoshiteru in 1552. In 1566 he produced a number of paintings for the Abbot's Quarters of the Jukônin in the Daitokuji. He was contracted by Oda Nobunaga to produce a series of wall paintings (shôhekiga) for Azuchi Castle around 1578 but these were all lost when Azuchi was destroyed in 1582. He afterwards worked for Toyotomi Hideyoshi and produced work for Juraku and Osaka Castle. Eitoku died suddenly in 1590 and his unfinished projects were completed by his son Mitsunobu.
Sons: Sanraku (1559-1635), Mitsunobu (1561-1608), Takanobu (1571-1618)
Echizen no kami
Nobutame was the son of Kasahara Ujishige. He served Hôjô Ujitsuna and later Hôjô Ujiyasu.
Noto no kami
Yasukatsu was the son of Kasahara Nobutame and a noted retainer of Hôjô Ujiyasu. He happened to be in Kanbara Castle in Suruga when that place was attacked by Takeda Katsuyori and Takeda Nobutoyo in 1569. The castle fell to the Takeda and Yasukatsu was killed.
Kagemune was born in Kii Province and came to serve the Hôjô of Sagami Province. He had a background in naval affairs (possibly even piracy) and so he commanded warships, which he led against the Takeda and Satomi on various occasions. He accompanied Hôjô Ujinao into exile in 1590 but after Ujinao's death his fortunes are unknown.
Kiyoshige of Shinano Province was related to the Kasahara who served the Hôjô. Kiyoshige resisted the advances of Takeda Shingen and was besieged in Shiga Castle in 1546. Uesugi Norimasa sent a relief army but this was defeated at Odaihara and Shingen displayed the heads taken at that battle before Shiga to dishearten the defenders. In 1547 the Takeda forced their way into Shiga and Kiyoshige was killed. His wife and children were taken as prisoners by the Takeda to Kai while a relative named Kasahara Noto no kami Mitsusada fled to the Hôjô domain and took up there.
The Kasai of Mutsu Province were locally powerful and clashed with the Hatakeyama in the Kurihara area. They later allied with the Date but suffered internal disturbances (such as the Temmon no ran of 1547) and were later invaded by their erstwhile allies and badly defeated at Tasuku. After this defeat a number of retainers began to drift away and the power of the family waned as it accepted Date control. They were dispossessed in 1590 by Toyotomi Hideyoshi for tardiness in attending the Seige of Odawara. Former Kasai retainers and farmers rioted in 1591 against Kimura Hidetoshi and his son Shigemasa (whom Toyotomi Hideyoshi had placed in control of the Kasai lands) and had to be suppressed by Date Masamune.
Warlord of Mutsu
Iki no kami, Sagami no kami
Harunobu was a younger son of Kasai Harutane and a grandson of Date Tanemune. He held Teraike Castle in the Toyoma district of Mutsu Province. Harunobu inherited a family that was troubled by disputes both internal and external. He was at odds with the neighboring Ôsaki family, and in 1588 suffered the rebellion of one of his chief retainer families, the Hamada. By this time the Kasai were more or less subject to the whims of the Date, which had grown quite powerful under Masamune and had provided two of the last four Kasai lords (including Harunobu's father). In 1590 Harunobu was tardy in responding to Hideyoshi's summons to join the Siege of Odawara Castle in Sagami and was deprived of his lands. While he went off into exile, former Kasai retainers rebelled and were crushed the following year.
Sons: Yoshishige, Kiyotaka
Toyotomi, Tokugawa retainer
Katsumoto was the son of Katagiri Naomasa. He first distinguished himself as one of the Seven Spears of Shizugatake, where he fought for Toyotomi Hideyoshi (1584). He participated in the Kyushu Campaign (1587)and was given a fief at Ibaraki in Settsu Province. Following the death of Maeda Toshiie in 1599 Katsumoto became Toyotomi Hideyori's official guardian and received a 28,000-koku fief in Yamato Province at Tatsuta. He remained neutral during the Sekigahara Campaign and later attempted to negotiate a peace between Tokugawa Ieyasu and Toyotomi Hideyori. When his efforts proved in vain, he retired to his home, though his men fought for Ieyasu at the sieges of Osaka Castle. Out of regret that he could not bring peace between the Tokugawa and Toyotomi, Katsumoto committed suicide after Osaka fell.
Toyotomi, Tokugawa retainer
Iwami no kami
Sadataka was a son of Katagiri Naomasa and a younger brother of Katagiri Katsumoto. He at first served Toyotomi Hideyori, then fought on the Tokugawa side at the sieges of Osaka Castle. He afterwards became a retainer of Tokugawa Hidetada.
Bitchû no kami
Kagetsuna was one of Date Masamune's chief retainers and was known at first as Kojûrô. At first a retainer of Date Terumune, he served as the gun bugyô (army commissioner) for Masamune's army and played an important role in the latter's battles to destroy the Ashina (which culminated in the capture of the Ashina capital in 1589). He was active in the campaign to contain Uesugi Kagekatsu in 1600 and there also distinguished himself. He was given Shiroishi Castle and an income of 16,000 koku in 1602 and accompanied Masamune to the Seiges of Osaka Castle. He died soon afterwards, to be joined by a number of members of his household who committed junshi - following one's lord in death.
(Katakura Shigenaga, Katakura Kojurô)
Shigetsuna was the son of Katakura Kagetsuna and was known in his childhood as Samon. He fought at Osaka Castle under his father and Date Masamune, particularly distinguishing himself at the Battles of Dômyôji and Tennôji and in the latter took five heads. His performance in the fighting earned him the nickname 'Devil Kojurô' and he was described as a mirror-image of his father.
Aki no kami, Zaemon-Daisuke
Nobutomo was a cousin of Takeda Nobutora. The specifics of his career are obscure, but he was killed fighting the forces of Hôjô Ujitsuna in 1535.
Nobumoto was the son of Takeda (Katanuma) Nobutomo and a cousin of Takeda Shingen. In 1560 Shingen learned that Nobumoto was plotting against him and ordered him to commit suicide.
(Katô Tora no Suke)
Higo no kami
Kiyomasa was the son of Kat Tadakiyo. He was born in Nakamura, a village in Owari Province reputed to be the home of Toyotomi Hideyoshi, and was first known as Yashiyamaru. A veteran of Hideyoshi's operations in Bitchû Province in 1582, he first distinguished himself at the Battle of Shizugatake, where he gained fame as one of the 'Seven Spears' of that battle (1583). He served in the Kyushu Campaign (1587) and conducted a one-on-one fight with Niiro Tadamoto of the Shimazu at the Battle of Sendaigawa. After the Shimazu had submitted, he received half of Higo province (worth 250,000 koku), which he shared with a man who would become a bitter rival - Konishi Yukinaga. In 1590 he joined the Konishi, Arima, and others in crushing a rebellion in the Amakusa Islands and his troops were reportedly brutal in their treatment of the defeated, especially Christians. Kiyomasa was selected to lead one of the two main forces that would spearhead the Japanese drive into Korea in 1592 (the other being commanded by Konishi) and his route carried him as far as the border of Manchuria in NE Korea. He opposed retreating when the Japanese situation became precarious, and took with him a captured Korean prince. He was in the vanguard of the 2nd Korean Campaign, but was besieged along with Asano Nagamasa at Chinju Castle, which held out until relief came in the Spring of the following year. He was a rival to Ishida Mitsunari and so gave his support to Tokugawa Ieyasu during the Sekigahara Campaign of 1600. He joined forces with Kuroda Yoshitaka to capture a number of castles on Kyushu, including Kurume in Chikugo. After the Tokugawa victory at Sekigahara he was given the lands of Konishi Yukinaga (executed in the wake of Sekigahara), raising his income to around 500,000 koku. He died in 1611, presumably as a result of the so-called Chinese pox (though Tokugawa Ieyasu's hand has always been suspected). Kiyomasa was a fanatical follower of the Nicherin sect of Buddhism and was as well known for his cruelty as his bravery (in Korea, for sport, he hunted tigers with a spear while at the same time, out of spite, he personally murdered two Korean noblewomen in his custody) and received the nickname Kishokan (Devil General). He was a rough figure and eschewed the cultural pursuits some of his contemporaries were fond of. His son Tadahiro was deprived of his domain in 1632 for allegedly plotting against the bakufu
Son: Tadahiro (1597-1653)
Oda, Toyotomi, Tokugawa retainer
Yoshiaki first distinguished himself at the Battle of Shizugatake (1583), where he would be remembered as one of that struggle's 'Seven Spears'. He went on to become a naval commander for Toyotomi Hideyoshi and commanded ships in the Kyushu and Odawara Campaigns, after which he was given a 100,000-koku fief in Ise Province at Matsuzaki. He was involved in the bitter naval battles fought off the coast of southern Korea during the 1st and 2nd Korean Campaigns, many of which went in favor of the Korean navy. Following the death of Hideyoshi (1598) Yoshiaki drifted in Tokugawa Ieyasu's camp and fought for him during the Sekigahara Campaign (1600). At the Battle of Sekigahara he commanded 3,000 men in the Tokugawa vanguard and clashed with the forces of Shima Sakon. After the battle his fief was increased to 200,000 koku.
Toyotomi, Tokugawa retainer
Tadaaki was a younger brother of Katô Yoshiaki. During the Sekigahara Campaign he was tasked with defending the Katô's Iyo domain and led a force that crushed a Kôno/Môri attempt to land on Iyo Province.
Saitô, Toyotomi retainer
Mitsuyasu was from Mino Province and was at first a retainer of Saitô Tatsuoki. He later became a retainer of Toyotomi Hideyoshi and was given a 240,000-koku fief in Ômi Province. He served in the 1st Korean Campaign and died suddenly while in the process of returning to Japan in 1593.
The Katsura were descended from a younger brother of Môri Motoharu, himself a descendant of Ôe Hiromoto. The Katsura were prominent retainers of the Môri of Aki Province throughout the Sengoku Period, although Katsura Hirosumi had been compelled to kill himself on suspicion of treason in 1524.
Hirozumi was a senior retainer of Môri Hiromoto and Okimoto. In 1524 Hirozumi joined a group of retainers that opposed Môri Motonari's assumption of control of the Môri. When the short-lived rebellion failed, Hirozumi killed himself.
Sons: Motozumi, Mototada
Motozumi was the son of Katsura Hirosumi (d.1524). Following the suicide of his father in 1524, Motozumi, along with his younger brother Mototada, held out briefly against Môri Motonari but was convinced to submit. He became an important retainer of Motonari and was entrusted with Sakurao Castle as well as with spreading disinformation during the movements leading up to the Battle of Miyajima in 1555. He was initally married to the daughter of Môri retainer Fukuhara Hirotoshi but later took as wife the daughter of Shiji Hiroyoshi.
Kazusa no suke
Mototada was the second son of Katsura Hirozumi (d.1524) and younger brother of Katsura Motozumi. He served Môri Motonari in an administrative capacity.
Tadaakira served Shimazu Yoshihisa. In 1587 he attempted to hold off the armies of Toyotomi Hideyoshi from his castle of Hirasa, which guarded one of the approaches to Kagoshima. He at length surrendered along with the rest of the Shimazu clan.
Imagawa, Takeda vassal
Bitchû no kami
Ujimoto was a son of Katsurayama Ujihiro. He was at first a vassal of the Imagawa and held Katsurayama Castle in Suruga Province. He joined the Takeda when Takeda Shingen invaded the Imagawa's domain in 1569. He evidently had a secret understanding with Shingen prior to the Takeda invasion and he afterwards adopted one of Shingen's sons, Nobusada (also known as Katsutoshi).
Buzen no kami
Nagachika was originally from Ômi Province but joined Uesugi Kenshin when the latter was visiting Kyoto in 1559. He was active in the Uesugi's Etchû and Kanto campaigns and acted as something of a diplomat from time to time. After Kenshin's death the Oda family attempted to bribe Nagachika away from the Uesugi but he refused. He defended Matsukura Castle in Etchû and clashed with the advancing Oda armies at the Battle of Arakawa in 2/1581, which he lost. He died of illness later that same year.
Son: (Gejô) Tadachika (Suruga no kami; d.1617)
Yoshimune was a leading retainer of Asakura Yoshikage whose field of expertise lay in administration. He was killed when the Oda invaded Echizen Province.
Hidetaka was a long-time retainer of the Oda family, first serving Oda Nobuhide, then Oda Nobunaga. A veteran of Azukizaka, he accompanied Ikeda Nobuteru in 1557 Suemori Castle to destroy Oda Nobuyuki. He went on to fight in such battles as Okehazama (1560), and at Iwamura in 1575, where Oda Nobutada led a siege that brought down the Takeda's foothold in Mino Province. After the fall of the Takeda in the Spring of 1582, Hidetaka was given Fuchu in Kai and the governorship of that province, as well as some land in Shinano Province. Following Nobunaga's death in 6/1582, the people of Kai rose up against Hidetaka and he was killed attempting to flee the province.
Hisaaki was a son of Kawamura Tadakatsu (1507-1592). He was highly regarded by Shimazu Yoshihisa and rose to a high position at an early age. In 1568 he served under the command of Shimazu Yoshihiro against the Sagara family. In the course of the fighting, he was surrounded by enemy troops and slain.
Mimasaka no kami
Hisamori was a long-time retainer of the Amako clan and was involved in various domestic and diplomatic missions for them, including negotiations with the Kikkawa and Ôuchi; his fate is unclear, though he appears to have died by the time Gassan-Toda fell to the Môri in 1567.
copyright 2005 F. W. Seal