Samurai Archives HOME
Biographical Dictionary HOME


(Ichijô Norifusa)
Tosa warlord

Fusaie, a son of Ichijô Norifusa, was a regent (Kampaku) to the emperor who fled the Ônin fighting in Kyoto to his estates in Tosa province on Shikoku around 1468. With the decline of the Hosokawa, the former power in the region, Fusaie was able to firmly established the Ichijô in the region as daimyô. He founded Nakamura, which he planned to construct in such a way as to recreate Kyoto - without success. He was succeeded by Ichijô Fusafuyu (d.1541).
Son: Fusamichi

ICHIJÔ Kanesada
Tosa warlord

Kanesada was a son of Ichijô Fusamoto (1520-1549). He was an unpopular lord and lost the support of a number of his important retainers. He was attacked by his erstwhile vassal Chosokabe Motochika in 1574 and in 1575 was forced to flee to Bungo Province, where he took up shelter with Ôtomo Sorin, whose daughter was Kanesada's mother. Kanesada became a Christian and attempted to reclaim his lands with the assistance of the Ôtomo. He failed and was exiled to an island off the coast of Iyo (Kojima). Motochika allowed him to stay there after the Chosokabe took Iyo, but is thought to have had a hand in his death in 1585. Many stories of cruelty on Kanesada's part circulated in his day, which some scholars attribute in part to Chosokabe propaganda. His Christian name was Dom Paulo.
Son: Uchimasa

ICHIJÔ Uchimasa

Uchimasa was the son of Ichijô Kanesada. After the defeat of his family, Uchimasa married one of Chosokabe Motochika's daughters but was later killed after he attempted to defy the will of his father-in-law.

ICHIJÔ Nobutatsu
Takeda retainer
Kôzuke no suke, Uemondayu

Nobutatsu was a younger son of Takeda Nobutora and had a different mother then his elder brothers. He served in a number of Takeda Shingen's battles, including Mikatagahara (1573) and held Ueno Castle. He also took part in the fighting at Nagashino in 1575 under his nephew Katsuyori. In 1582 he was captured by the Tokugawa during the Oda/Tokugawa invasion of the Takeda domain and was put to death by the Fuji River along with his son Nobunari. Nobutatsu is said to have been a man of culture and possessed some skill in diplomacy.
Son: Nobunari (Uemondayu; d.1582)

Imagawa retainer
Dewa no kami

Munekore served Imagawa Yoshimoto. In 1554 he was part of a force dispatched to assist Takeda Shingen on a campaign in Shinano Province as part of a Takeda-Imagawa alliance. He was killed at the Battle of Okehazama in 1560.

IGAWA Mitsunobu
(Igawa Sôgen)
Hatakeyama retainer
Wakasa no kami, Shinjiro

Mitsunobu served the Hatakeyama of Noto Province. When the chief Hatakeyama retainers forced Hatakayema Yoshitsugu to retire in favor of his son, Yoshitsuna (1551), Mitsunobu emerged as an ally of Yoshitsugu and Yoshitsuna. The retainers established a council of seven members to rule the province behind Yoshitsuna; when one of the seven died, the Hatakeyama contrived to have Mitsunobu named as his replacement. He was a capable administrator and a loyal retainer, helping the Hatakeyama to restore their authority in 1555, although his ultimate fate is unknown.


The Ii mon

The Ii were originally from Tôtômi Province and claimed descent from Fujiwara Yoshikado (ca.850). During the early Sengoku period they fought with the Imagawa in cooperation with Shiba Yoshisato but later became Imagawa vassals. The Ii became powerful under Tokugawa Ieyasu thanks to Ii Naomasa, one of the Ieyasu's four most famous generals, and were politically influential until the end of Edo period.

II Naomori
Imagawa retainer
Shinano no kami

Naomori held Iidani Castle in Tôtômi Province. He at first contested the Imagawa's growing influence in Tôtômi but became a vassal of Imagawa Yoshimoto, though . He was killed at the Battle of Okehazama.
Son: Noachika

II Naochika
Imagawa vassal

Naochika was the son of Ii Naomori and held Iidani Castle in Tôtômi Province. He was suspected of treason by Imagawa Ujizane and as a result was killed by the Asahina.
Son: Naomasa

II Naomasa
(Ii Hyôbu, Ii Manchiyo)
Tokugawa retainer

Naomasa was born in Hôda village in the Inasa district of Tôtômi province, the only son of Ii Naochika and the daughter of Okuyama Chikatomo. He was at first known as Toramatsu. His father was destroyed on Imagawa Ujizane’s orders but Naomasa was hidden away and avoided his father’s fate. He entered the service of Tokuagwa Ieyasu and at Tanaka (1578) quickly distinguished himself as a brave fighter. He was established at Iidani Castle. He commanded 3,000 men at the Battle of Nagakute (1584) and did great damage to the Ikeda troops he faced with gunnery fire. Following the Tokugawa transfer to the Kanto in 1590, Naomasa, who rose in rank rapidly despite his relative youth, was given Minowa Castle in Kôzuke province, worth 12,000 koku. At the start of the Sekigahara Campaign, he participated in the attack on Gifu Castle and at the actual Battle of Sekigahara commanded 3,600 men. In that great battle he acted as an escort to Ieyasu's son Tadayoshi but managed to draw first blood, outpacing the troops of Fukushima Masanori and attacking Ukita Hideie's contingent. At the end of the fighting he was shot and wounded by a Shimazu sniper as he was attempting to run down the retreating Shimazu contingent. He was thus unable to personally carry out Ieyasu’s orders instructing him to assist Yamanouchi Kazutoyo in securing Tosa Province and sent his retainer Suzuki Hyoue instead. He was afterwards awarded Sawayama in Ômi Province (worth some 180,000 koku) but died in 1602, evidently as a result of his Sekigahara wound. He was noted for dressing his men in red armor, and his contingent was often known as Ii's 'Red Devils' for its fighting spirit (Ii himself was sometimes called 'Akaoni', or Red Devil/ogre). This is said to have been adopted after the Tokugawa took over the Takeda lands and Ieyasu inquired into the tactics Takeda Shingen had employed on the battlefield - which included allowing Yamagata Masakage to dress his men in red for psychological effect. Naomasa was considered one of Ieyasu's great captains and was highly regarded by his master.
Sons: Naotsugu, Naotaka

II Naotsugu
(Ii Naokatsu)
Tokugawa retaier

Naotsugu succeeded his father Naomasa in 1602 and began construction of Hikone Castle the following year. He refused to fight at Osaka Castle for the Tokugawa in 1614 and was therefore made to step down in favor of his younger brother Naotaka the following year. Nonetheless, he was given the fief of Anaka in Shinano, worth 30,000 koku.

II Naotaka
Tokugawa retainer

Naotaka fought in the Osaka Castle Campaigns (commanding 3,200 men at the Battle of Tennôji in June 1615) and following their conclusion was granted his elder brother Naotsugu's land. He completed work on Hikone Castle in 1622.

IIDA Motochika
(Iida Jirôshirô)
Môri retainer

Motochika was the second son of Kodama Motoyoshi. He fought under Môri Motonari in the battles with the local Takeda family and later at Koriyama Castle (1540). He is remembered as one of Motonari's '18 Generals' and was known as a brave warrior.

IIDA Yoshitake
Môri retainer

Yoshitake was a retainer of the Môri of Aki Province. He served with Kodama Narikata as an admiral in the Môri navy. He participated in the transportation of the main Môri attack force to Miyajima during the Battle of Miyajima (Itsukushima) in 1555. He was also active in many ocean battles along the Buzen and Chikuzen coasts.

IIÔ Tsuratatsu
Imagawa retainer
Buzen no kami

Tsuratatsu served Imagawa Ujizane and held Hikuma in Tôtômi Province. In 1564 the Imagwa discovered that he was secretly communicating with Tokugawa Ieyasu and attacked him. Peace was made but the following year he was summoned by Ujizane to Suruga, where he was assassinated.


The Ijuin mon

The Ijuin were descended from Shimazu Tadatoki. They served the Shimazu throughout the Sengoku Period although their reputation declined owing to scandals involving members of the family at the dawn of the Edo Period.

IJUIN Tadamune
(Ijuin Kôgan)
Shimazu retainer
Uemon daibu

Tadamune was the son of Ijuin Tadaao and an important Shimazu retainer who served in many of Shimazu Yoshihisa's campaigns and battles, including Mimigawa (1578). During Toyotomi Hideyoshi's invasion of Kyushu in 1587, Tadamune ended up assisting in negotiations between Hideyoshi and the Shimazu. He impressed Hideyoshi and found himself treated as almost an equal to the Shimazu. Tadamune in fact began to act as if he were an independant lord and was haphazard in his duties to the Shimazu. In 1595 he was transferred from Koyama to an 80,000-koku fief at Miyako-no-sho on Hideyoshi's orders and led over 2,000 men in the 2nd Korean Campaign (1597-98). However, he was summoned on 4/4/1599 to Shimazu Tadatsune's mansion and was there murdered.
Son: Tadazane

IJUIN Tadazane
Shimazu retainer

Tadazane was the eldest son of Ijuin Tadamune. Although his father was killed for conspiratorial actions in 1599, he was allowed to remain a Shimazu retainer owing to the intercession of Tokugawa Ieyasu. However, on a 10/2/1602 hunting expedition he was murdered, apparently on Shimazu Tadatsune's orders. A number of his close allies were afterwards put to death as well.

IKAI Nobusada
(Ikai Jinsuke)
Rokkaku, Oda retainer

Nobusada was at first a retainer of Rokkaku Yoshitaka, joining Oda Nobunaga around 1570. He became a retainer of Akechi Mitsuhide, and the course of his career beyond this is unknown.

IKEDA Katsumasa
Settsu warlord
Chikugo no kami

Katsumasa, a local power in Settsu Province, submitted to Oda Nobunaga in November of 1568 but was later deprived of his holdings.

IKEDA (Owari)

The Ikeda mon

The Ikeda of Owari Province were descended from Minamoto Yorimitsu (944-1021), whose great-great grandson Yasumasa first took the name Ikeda. In fact, the Ikeda's origins are a matter of some debate, as another version has them as descendants of the Kusunoki clan. In the 16th Century the Ikeda rose to fame as they followed the fortunes of the 'Three Unifiers'. Ikeda Tsunetoshi entered the service of Oda Nobuhide and Tsuneyoshi's son Nobuteru would become a trusted Oda general, as well as a personal friend of Toyotomi Hideyoshi. While Nobuteru would be killed at the Battle of Nagakute, his son Terumasa would side with Tokugawa Ieyasu in the Sekigahara campaign and become one of the richest daimyô in Japan. The Ikeda would remain wealthy daimyô throughout the Edo Period.

IKEDA Nobuteru
(Ikeda Tsuneoki, Ikeda Shônyû)
Oda, Toyotomi retainer
Kii no kami

Nobuteru was a son of Ikeda Tsunetoshi. He began his career as a soldier under Oda Nobunaga, to whom his mother had acted as a wet-nurse. He received his first command in 1560 and served at Okehazama that same year. In 1566 he was given the castle of Kinota in Mino province. Following his participation in the Battle of Anegawa (where he led 3,000 men) in 1570, he was made the commander of Inuyama Castle. He then went from Akechi Castle in Mino to Honoguma Castle in 1579. In 1580 he was given Osaka Castle and an income worth as much as 100,000 koku. He fought for Hideyoshi at Yamazaki, and the following year formally offered his loyalty and was made lord of Ôgaki castle in Mino. He participated in the Komaki Campaign in 1584, and was a commander at the Battle of Nagakute against the Tokugawa. In the course of the fighting Tokugawa retainer Nagai Naokatsu ran Nobuteru through with a spear and killed him. Nobuteru's death came as a blow to Hideyoshi, who felt compelled to write a letter to Nobuteru’s widow expressing his sorrow.
Sons: Yukisuke, Terumasa, Nagayoshi, Nagamasa

IKEDA Yukisuke
(Ikeda Motosuke)
Ikeda retainer

Yukisuke was the eldest son of Ikeda Nobuteru and held Gifu Castle in Mino following the death of Oda Nobunaga in 1582. He was killed in the fighting at Nagakute fighting for Hideyoshi.
Son: Motonobu

IKEDA Terumasa
Toyotomi, Tokugawa retainer

Terumasa was a son of Ikeda Nobuteru and when he came of age was given Ikejiri Castle in Mino Province. He joined his father in fighting at Nagakute, a battle that saw his father, elder brother, and brother-in-law killed. Following the transfer of Tokugawa Ieyasu to the Kanto in 1590, Terumasa was established at Yoshida in Mikawa, a 152,000-koku fief. In 1594 he married one of Tokugawa Ieyasu's daughters, Tokuhime, the former wife of Hôjô Ujinao and after Hideyoshi's death in 1598, the Ikeda drifted into Ieyasu's camp. When the Sekigahara Campaign began, he immediately joined Ieyasu and competed with Fukashima Masanori to reduce Gifu Castle in Mino, held by Oda Hidenobu. At the Battle of Sekigahara, Terumasa commanded 4,500 troops in the rear guard and saw some desultory fighting with Chosokabe Morichika's contingent in the battle’s closing stage. Following the Tokugawa victory, Terumasa was given a 520,000-koku fief in Harima, centered on Himeji Castle (which he greatly expanded). In 1603 Bizen was added to Terumasa's territory, and this he assigned to his eldest son Toshitaka. At the time of his death, Terumasa was one of the richest daimyô west of Kyoto and was nicknamed the saigoku no shôgun, or 'shôgun of Western Japan'.
Sons: Toshitaka (1584-1616),Tadatsugu (1599-1615), Tadao (1602-1632), Teruzumi (1603-1662), Masatsuna (1604-1662), Teruoki (1611-1657), Toshimasa

IKEDA Nagayoshi
Toyotomi retainer
Bitchû no kami

Notes: Nagayoshi was the third son of Ikeda Nobuteru and was adopted by Toyotomi Hideyoshi. He supported the Tokugawa in the Sekigahara Campaign (1600) and assisted his elder brother Terumasa in the reduction of Gifu Castle in Mino. He was afterwards given Tottori Castle in Inaba.
Son: Nagayuki (1587-1632)


The Ikoma of Owari Province claimed descent from Fujiwara Fusasaki, whose descendant Yoshifusa came to Owari in the Heian Period. During the 16th-to early 17th Century, they came to serve each of the 'Three Unifiers' (Nobunaga, Hideyoshi, and Ieyasu) in turn but in 1640, owing to the bad conduct of Ikoma Takatoshi (1611-1659), were moved to Dewa. They resided in that province for the duration of the Edo Period.

IKOMA Ienaga
Oda, Toyotomi retainer

Ienaga, the brother of Oda Nobunaga's concubine Kitsuno, became a trusted Oda retainer and served at a number of Nobunaga’s battles, including Moribe (1561) and Anegawa (1570). He later served Toyotomi Hideyoshi and was present for the Battle of Nagakute (1584) and the Odawara Campaign (1590). Ienaga was a cousin to Ikoma Chikamasa.

IKOMA Chikamasa
Toyotomi retainer

Chikamasa was the son of Ikoma Chikashige, a native of Owari. He served Toyotomi Hideyoshi and saw service in the latter's Chugoku Campaign (1577-82). He went on to serve in the Battle of Shizugatake (1583)and the Komaki Campaign (1584). Chikamasa also attended the siege of Odawara Castle (1590) and led some 5,000 men in the 1st Korean Campaign (1592-93). Over his career, Chikamasa saw his income increase from 20,000-koku to 60,000 when he was given Takamatsu in Sanuki Province in 1587.
Son: Kazumasa

IKOMA Kazumasa
Tokugawa retainer
Sanuki no kami

Kazumasa was the son of Ikoma Chikamasa. He led 1,800 men at the Battle of Sekigahara and was afterwards given an income worth some 170,000 koku.
Sons: Masatoshi, Masanobu, Masafusa

IMAFUKU Masakazu
Takeda retainer
Chikuzen no kami

Masakazu served Takeda Shingen and Takeda Katsuyori as a commander of infantry, having been given a fief in the Suwa area of Shinano in 1563. He was killed during the Oda/Tokugawa invasion of the Takeda domain in 1582.


The Imagawa were established by Imagawa Kuniuji, the son of Ashikaga Nagauji (1211-1290). They were powerful in Suruga Province throughout the Muromachi Period, providing a line headed by Imagawa Sadayo to act as the Ashikaga's representatives in Kyushu. The Imagawa, whose capital was Sumpu, expanded their influence in the Sengoku Period, securing a hold over Tôtômi Province and penetrating into Mikawa Province. They were defeated at Okehazama in 1560 by Oda Nobunaga and succumbed to the Takeda in 1569. The family lived on to provide Masters of Ceremony to the Tokugawa bakufu in the Edo period.

IMAGAWA Ujichika
Lord of Suruga
Kazusa no Suke, Shuri-tayû

Ujichika was the son of Imagawa Yoshitada and was first known as Tatsuomaru. In 1476 Yoshitada invaded Tôtômi Province and defeated the Katsumada and Yokota clans. On the return to Suruga, however, he was waylaid at Shiokaizaka and was attacked and killed by the remnants of the two families he had just defeated. A succession dispute between supporters of Yoshichika's infant son Tatsuomaru (Ujichika) and his cousin Oshika Shingorô Norimitsu developed. Ôgigayatsu - Uesugi Sadamasa and the so-called Horigoe Kubô (Ashikaga Masatomo) both became involved, and the Imagawa found themselves standing at a crossroads. Ise Shinkûrô (better known as Hôjô Sôun) proposed that until Ujichika has his coming of age ceremony, Oshika Norimitsu act as a regent in his name. This averted armed conflict within the Imagawa, at least temporarily. However, when Ujichika turned 17, Norimitsu would not turn over control of the imagawa clan to him, and hostilities resumed. Shinkûrô attacked Norimitsu's mansion on Ujichika's behalf and once Norimatsu was defeated, Ujichika assumed his position as head of the clan. He gave asylum to Ashikaga Yoshizumi after the latter fled Kyoto in 1491 and afterwards escorted him back. A capable leader, he spent much time campaigning in Tôtômi and Mikawa, strengthening the position of the Imagawa on the Tokai Coast. He died of illness in 1526 and was succeeded by his eldest son Ujiteru. Ujichika is remembered for sending three of his six sons to various temples to become monks and for building Nagoya Castle in Owari Province in 1525 - both of which were considered somewhat unusual, the latter because the Imagawa had only the most tenuous of holds over Owari. He composed the Imagawa house code, the Imagawa Kana Mokuroku, in 1526. Clauses included such stipulations as the punishment for unlawful entry of another's residence (article 7), the imposition of capital punishment in violent quarrels between retainers (article 8), the accountability of the parents of children (of retainers) involved in fights (article 11), regulations concerning the private sale and leasing of land (articles 13-15), debt repayment (article 17), and forbidding retainers of the Imagawa to arrange marriages with houses outside the Imagawa domain (article 30).
Sons: Ujiteru, Hikogoro (d.1536), Yoshizane, Yoshimoto, Ujitoyo

Lord of Suruga

Ujiteru was the eldest son of Imagawa Ujichika and succeeded his father in 1526. He died of illness without children in 3/1536, setting off a succession dispute among his younger brothers from which Yoshimoto emerged the daimyô.

IMAGAWA Yoshimoto
Lord of Suruga
Jibu-Ôsuke, Mikawa no kami, Kazusa no suke

Imagawa Yoshimoto

Yoshimoto was the 5th son of Imagawa Ujichika and was at first a monk at the Zentoku-ji. When his elder brother Ujiteru died suddenly, Yoshimoto returned to public life and clashed with his other brothers for the inheritance (the so-called Hanagura no ran). He emerged victorious and thus became the new Imagawa lord. He married Takeda Nobutora's sister in 1537 and may have been involved in Takeda Shingen's take-over in Kai (1540). His friendly rapport with the Takeda alienated the Hôjô, who had aided the Imagawa at various points for decades. Aided by the Takeda, Imagawa marched against the Hôjô in 1544 but concluded a peace treaty with them and went back after facing off against Hôjô Ujiyasu at Kitsunebashi. A noted administrator, Yoshimoto carried out a series of land surveys and transformed his capital of Sumpu into a cultural center. Yoshimoto himself was said to have had the habit of shaving his eyebrows and blackening his teeth in the manner of a Kyoto noble. His wife was of noble blood (her father was the Dainagon Naka no Mikado Nobutane) and is said to have assisted him in this area. Militarily, Yoshimoto worked towards consolidating the Imagawa domain and was greatly aided by his uncle, the monk-general Sessai Choro. He secured Imagawa influence over Tôtômi and made a series of political arrangements designed to bring the Matsudaira of Mikawa Province under his control. As he pushed westward, he fought with Oda Nobuhide of Owari on a number of occasions, and then with his son Nobunaga. In 1554 he arranged a treaty between the Imagawa, Hôjô, and Takeda that remains a model example of marital politics in the sengoku period. In 1560 he organized an army of some 20,000 men and marched westward, determined to take Kyoto. In Owari he made a few initial gains but was attacked in the Dengakuhazama (Okehazama) by a much smaller force under Oda Nobunaga and was killed in the confusion. His army fled back to the Imagawa domain and the fortunes of his family began to sink afterwards. A capable enough leader and a man of culture, Yoshimoto established a printing press in Sumpu and oversaw the compilation of a 5 volume history of the Imagawa.
Son: Ujizane

Imagawa retainer

Ujitoyo was the 6th son of Imagawa Ujichika and Yoshimoto's younger brother. He was given control of Nagoya Castle at a young age and married a daughter of Shiba Yoshimune. He was well-known as a composer of renga (linked verse), and this hobby, so one story goes, led to the fall of Nagoya: he evidently liked to invite the local warlord Oda Nobuhide to the castle for poetry sessions and became so complacent that Nobuhide finally took the place with just the small entourage he had on hand at the time. Ujitoyo's fate is unclear.

Lord of Suruga

Ujizane was the son of Imagawa Yoshimto and became daimyô following the death of his father at Okehazama in 1560. He suffered the loss of his Matsudaira vassals afterwards by unwisely trading a number of Matsudaira hostages for certain of the Udono clan taken by the Matsudaira. He came to rely on the Asahina to maintain order in his troubled domain. Between 1561 and 1565, he felt compelled to execute or quell a number of his men, including Ii Naochika (1562) and Iiô Tsurutatsu (1565). He came into conflict with the Takeda and although Ujizane was the son of Takeda Shingen's sister, the latter invaded Suruga Province in 1568 while Tokugawa Ieyasu attacked Tôtômi. As Ujizane was married to a daughter of Hôjô Ujiyasu, the Hôjô offered the Imagawa assistance but could not prevent Sumpu from falling to the Takeda. By then Ujizane had fled to Tôtômi and taken up with the Asahina at Kakegawa Castle. He was surrounded by Tokugawa Ieyasu’s troops and surrendered, giving up control of the province in exchange for safe passage to Hôjô territory. Since the Takeda had burned Sumpu, Ujizane went on to Sagami Province to await developments. Since the Takeda had firmly established themselves in Suruga and the last Hôjô troops had been ejected in 1571, Ujizane retired to Kyoto in 1575. When the Takeda were destroyed in 1582, Ujizane held out hopes that he might receive Sumpu and Ieyasu supported his case but Nobunaga refused. He eventually joined Tokugawa at Edo, having taken the name Sôkan and the tonsure. Although remembered as a poor ruler, Ujizane was culturally refined and his descendants became masters of ceremonies for the Tokugawa.
Son: Norimochi (1570-1607)

IMAI (Owari)

The Imai entered the Sengoku Period as fudai to the Kyôgoku family and held Minouchi Castle in Ômi. When the Kyôgoku were defeated by the Asai, the Imai eventually allied themselves with the latter. Their independence was diminished by Asai Nagamasa and all but lost with the death of their lord, Sadakiyo, in 1561.

IMAI Sadakiyo
(Imai Kenroku)
Asai retainer

Sadakiyo held Minouchi Castle in Ômi Province and was an ally and later vassal to the Asai. He was accidentally speared and killed by Asai retainer Kishizawa Yoichi during the Asai's efforts to recapture Futo Castle from the Rokaku in 1561.
Son: Hidetaka

IMAI (Settsu)

The Imai were a wealthy and influential merchant family of Sakai in Settsu province. They reached their greatest heights under Imai Sôkyû, a famed merchant and tea master who enjoyed the favor of Oda Nobunaga and Toyotomi Hideyoshi.

IMAI Sôkyû
Tea master, merchant

Sôkyû was one of Sakai's most important merchants and a member of the city's leadership council. When Oda Nobunaga demanded that Sakai acknowledge his authority, Sôkyû urged the council to submit and sent Nobunaga two valuable tea items as a good will gesture. Nobunaga awarded Sôkyû for his efforts by giving him a lucrative commison to manufacture firearms for the Oda. He instructed Nobunaga in the tea ceremony and as a tea master later enjoyed the favor of Toyotomi Hideyoshi. He was present for the Grand Kitano Tea Ceremony (1586).
Son:Sôkun (d.1627)

INA Tadatsugu
Takeda, Tokugawa retainer
Bizen no kami

Tadatsugu, a civil officer of some ability, first served Takeda Katsuyori and later Tokugawa Ieyasu. After the Odawara Campaign he was given a 13,000-koku fief at Konosu in Musashi province and was made responsible for the administration of the Kanto's granary land. Following the formation of the Edo Bakufu Ina continued to act as an expert on civil administration for Ieyasu. Before his death he had supervised a number of public works projects.
Son: Tadamasa

INABA Ittetsu
(Inaba Yoshimichi)
Saitô, Oda, Toyotomi retainer
Iyo no kami

Ittetsu was at first one of three senior retainers of the Saitô daimyô of Mino but joined Oda Nobunaga around 1561. He was present at the Battle of Anegawa (1570) and later transferred his loyalties to Hideyoshi following Nobunaga's death. He served in Hideyoshi's headquarters during the Komaki Campaign (1584).
Son: Masashige

INABA Masashige
Oda, Toyotomi, Tokugawa retainer

Masanari was the son of Inaba Ittetsu and like his father served Oda Nobunaga and the Toyotomi Hideyoshi. He eventually received a 25,000-koku fief in Echigo Province at Itoigawa (1619).

Ashina, Date retainer

Morikuni was a son of Inawashiro Morikiyo. Morikiyo, who was also known as Morimoto, was a younger son of Ashina Morinori and was adopted by Inawashiro . He at first seved the Ashina of the Aizu district of Mutsu Province and held Inawashiro Castle. A general of some ability, he halted Date Masamune's 1585 campaign against the Ashina at Hibara. In 1589, after growing discord between the Inawashiro and Ashina Yoshihiro, Morikuni approached Date Masamune through the offices of Haneda Naokage (a retainer of Date Shigezane). Morikuni then rebelled against the Ashina and joined Masamune's campaign into Aizu (which saw the Ashina army defeated at Suriagehara and the fall of the Ashina's Kurokawa Castle). Masamune showed his gratitude to Morikuni by allowing him to adopt the Date family crest as his own. He his eldest son died not long after the fall of the Ashina family and so Morikuni was succeeded by his second son, Munekuni.
Sons:Moritane, Munekuni, Moriaki

INDÔ Yoriyasu
(Indô Denshin)
Sagara retainer
Mimasaka no kami

Yoriyasu was the son of Indô Mimasaka no kami Shigeyasu and was related to the Sagara of Higo Province, whom he served. Yoriyasu's family was nearly wiped out on the orders of Sagara Nagasada, and Yoriyasu, then a child, was saved by going to a temple. He later returned to secular life and served the Sagara, fighting with great bravery against the Shimazu at the Siege of Minamata (1581). When Sagara Yoshiaki committed suicide and Minamata fell, Yoriyasu once more took up the tonsure and remained in a temple for the remainder of his life.
Son: Yorimori

INDÔ Yorimori
(Indô Sebei)
Sagara retainer

Yorimori was the son of Indô Yoriyasu. He served the Sagara and joined them in betraying the western cause during the Sekigahara Campaign (1600).


The Inomata were a Hôjô retainer family. Inomata Kuninori served Hôjô Ujikuni and was killed in 1590.

INOUE Motokane
Môri retainer

The Inoue mon

Motokane was the son of Inoue Kawachi no kami Mitsukane and the de facto head of a notable Aki family that nominally served the Môri. He resided at Tenjinyama Castle. As Motokane grew more powerful militarily and economically, he began to test the leadership of Môri Motonari. In 1550 Motonari forced Motokane and many members of his household to commit suicide on the grounds of treasonous behavior, an act that secured the former as Aki's most powerful warlord. The Inoue were afterwards allowed to continue on as Môri retainers

IRIDA Chikazane
Ôtomo retainer

Chikazane was a favored retainer of Ôtomo Yoshiaki and was made the guardian of Ôtomo Sôrin. When Yoshiaki let out that he wished to name a younger son as his heir, Chikazane and a faction of other Ôtomo retainers surrounding Sôrin assassinated Yoshiaki in 1550. Sorin, although possibly fully aware of Chikazane's intentions beforehand, destroyed him in turn. IRIKI-IN Shigetomo
Shimazu retainer

Shigetomo was the son of Iriki-in Shigetoshi and head of the Iriki-in. He served Shimazu Takahisa. On Takahisa's behalf he fought with the forces of Shimazu Sanehisa. He was granted Momotsugi Castle in 1536, and Koriyama in 1537, but was forced to capture the former from Sanehisa in 1539, as well as fight at Hirasa, and Kuma no sho. His relations with Shimazu Takahisa spoiled despite his excellent service, and Shimazu Takahisa prepared an expedition to chastise him in 1544. He died that same year, however, and was succeeded by Iriki-in Shigetsugu (d.1570), who managed to restore the Iriki-in's good standing with Takahisa.

IRIKI-IN Shigetoyo
Shimazu retainer
Danjô no chu

Shigetoyo, the son of Iriki-in Shigetoshi, married an elder sister of Shimazu Yukihisa and served the Shimazu loyally. He died without an heir and was succeeded by Iriki-in Shigetoki.

IRIKI-IN Shigetoki
(Iriki-in Mataroku)
Shimazu retainer

Shigetoki was the second son of Shimazu Yukihisa and was adopted as heir to the Iriki-in following the death of Iriki-in Shigetoyo in 1583. He subsequently married a daughter of Shimazu Toshihisa. He was unable to serve in the 1st Korean Campaign due to illness but joined the 2nd Korean Campaign in 1597 and rendered distinguished service (at Namwan, Sach'on, and elsewhere), afterwards being given a fief at Yuno-o. In 1599 he helped put down a rebellion by Ijuin Tadamune, and fought at Kusumure, afterwards taking the news of the victory to Tokugawa Ieyasu. He accompanied Shimazu Yoshihiro to the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600. When the western forces were defeated, Shigetoki was killed along with the entire Iriki-in contingent during the retreat from the battlefield.

IRIKI-IN Shigetaka
(Shimazu Hisahide, Ei Hisahide, Iriki-in Shigekuni)
Shimazu retainer
Iwami no kami

Shigetaka was a nephew of Shimazu Yoshihisa and the son of Shimazu Yoshitora. He was adopted into first the Ei, then the Iriki-in, where he succeeded Iriki-in Shigetoki, who died without an heir at Sekigahara (1600). In 1613 he was transferred from Yuno-o to Iriki-in.

IROBE Katsunaga
Uesugi retainer

The Irobe mon

Katsunaga was the son of Irobe Tôtômi no kami Norinaga, a leading retainer of Nagao Tamekage. Katsunaga acted as Uesugi Kenshin's military chief of staff (Gun - bugyô) and saw service at a number of the battles at Kawanakajima, including those conducted in 1557 and 1561. He was given a fief at Shitoshi. Katsunaga was killed in a night attack while at the siege of Honjô Shigenaga's castle in 1569.
Sons: Akinaga, Nagazane (d.1592)

IROBE Akinaga
(Irobe Yasaburô)
Uesugi retainer

Akinaga was a son of Irobe Katsunaga and succeeded his father when the latter died in 1569. He served Uesugi Kenshin with distinction and retired in 1576 in favor a younger brother, Nagazane.

ISE Sadaroku
Ashikaga retainer

Sadaroku was appointed by the shôgun as military governor of Yamashiro province in the 5th month of 1486 in order to take back control of the province from a rebellious league of farmers and land managers. This assembly rejected his appointment, and continued to assume judicial and tax powers until 1493, when Sadaroku was re-appointed governor and most of the soldiers of Yamashiro submitted to him. The remaining holdouts were crushed, effectively ending the rebellion.

ISE Shinkûro

ISHIDA Masatsugu
Asai retainer

The Ishida mon

Masatsugu was the son of Ishida Seishin and held Ishida Castle in Ômi Province. He retired after the defeat of the Asai in 1573 and committed suicide when he received word of his son Mitsunari's defeat at the Battle of Sekigahara.
Sons: Masazumi, Mitsunari

ISHIDA Masazumi
Ishida retainer

Masazumi held Sawayama Castle in Ômi Province for his elder brother Mistunari while the latter was engaged in the events leading up to the Battle of Sekigahara. Following the battle, Sawayama was besieged and Masazumi committed suicide.

ISHIDA Mitsunari
(Ishida Katsushige)
Toyotomi retainer
Jibu Shôyû

Mitsunari was the son of Ishida Masatsugu and was born at Ishida in Ômi Province. He was recruited into Hashiba (Toyotomi) Hideyoshi's service around 1578, in part due to his cultural acuity. While he saw military service at Shizugatake (1584)and elsewhere, his main function was that of an administrator, and in the Korean Campaign he acted as an Inspector of Forces for Hideyoshi. In the course of carrying out that role in the 2nd Korean Campaign, he alienated both Kobayakawa Hideaki and Kuroda Yoshitaka by sending Hideyoshi unfavorable reports on their activities. He accumulated a fief of some 200,000 koku and was given Sawayama Castle in Ômi. He became distrusted and disliked by many, in part due to his 'civilian' nature and in part to the power he wielded within the Toyotomi government. He issued numerous orders in Hideyoshi's name and often acted as Hideyoshi's representative. In 1598 he was named one of the Five Commisoners responsible with maintaining the civil affairs of the realm while Hideyori came of age. He was out-spoken and at times tactless, but held enough support to challenge Tokugawa Ieyasu, the most powerful of the Regents. He argued - with some cause - that Ieyasu was undermining both the legacy of the late Taikô and his final wishes. Ieyasu countered by painting Mistunari (also with some validity) as an unscrupulous schemer. Mistunari went so far as to attempt the assassination of Ieyasu in 1599, and narrowly avoided his own death at the hands of several Tokugawa loyalists (thanks, ironically and mysteriously, to help from Ieyasu himself). The following year, after gaining the support of three of the Regents (Môri Terumoto, Uesugi Kagekatsu, and Ukita Hideie), Mitsunari rallied a host of daimyô (predominantly from the western provinces) against Ieyasu, and the Sekigahara Campaign began. In the lead-up to the climactic battle, Mitsunari argued with Môri Terumoto and named the half-hearted lord of the Môri nominal commander of the 'western' forces. Frustrated by Terumoto's reluctance, Mitsunari asked him to guard Hideyori at Osaka Castle. This move, either made over concerns about Terumoto’s commitment to their cause or as a ploy on Mitsunari's part to maintain his importance in the unfolding events deeply insulted the Môri, and in the Battle of Sekigahara that clan would contribute little. At Sekigahara, Mitsunari's make-shift strategy was sound - he intended to draw Ieyasu into the valley and fall on him from all sides. The western forces were in the event undone by the betrayal of Kobayakawa Hideaki and the inactivity of the Môri. Mitsunari's coalition was utterly defeated, and Mistunari himself was apprehended some days later. He was taken to the Rokujôgahara execution grounds in Kyoto and was beheaded along with Ankokuji Ekei and Konishi Yukinaga.
Son: Shigeie (Hayato no shô)


The Ishikawa of Mikawa Province claimed descent from Minamoto Yoshiie (1039-1106). Yoshiie's son Yoshitoki adopted the name Ishikawa, after a place in Kwatchi Province. The Ishikawa later moved to Shimotsuke Province, and were known for a few generations as the Oyama, borrowing that name from a local family. They moved to Mikawa Province in the 15th Century and resumed the name 'Ishikawa'. Ishikawa Chikayasu came to serve Matsudaira Chikatada and, afterwards, the Ishikawa would be a notable retainer family of the Matsudaira/Tokugawa.

Matsudaira/Tokugawa retainer
Hyûga no kami

Ienari was a son of Ishikawa Kiyokane. He served Tokugawa Ieyasu and was in the front of the fighting for Marume Castle in the Okehazama Campaign (1560) and was active in the suppression of the 1564 Mikawa ikko-ikki riot. During the 1600 Sekigahara Campaign, Ieyasu appointed Ienari as guardian of Edo Castle.
Son: Yasumichi (Nagato no kami, 1554-1609)

Tokugawa, Toyotomi retainer
Hôki no kami

Kazumasa was a son of Ishikawa Kiyokane. He served Tokugawa Ieyasu from childhood, when both were hostages in the Imagawa's capital of Sumpu. After Ieyasu secured independence from the Imagawa after Okehazama (1560), Kazumasa became a valued retainer and a skilled administrator. When Ieyasu managed to convince Imagawa Ujizane to release his family in 1562, Ishikawa went to the Imagawa capital to act as their guardian, a dangerous assignment. In 1583, after Tototomi Hideyoshi's victory over Shibata Katsuie, Ishikawa was sent to present him with Ieyasu's congratulations. The next year, Tokugawa decided to take issue with Hideyoshi and Ishikawa and Sakikabara accordingly issued statements attacking Hideyoshi. Ishikawa served at Ieyasu's Komaki headquarters during the resulting Komaki-Nagakute Campaign. Following the cease-fire, Kazumasa switched sides, evidently dismayed by what he took to be Tokugawa's foolhardy path of resistance to Hideyoshi. His departure from the Tokugawa camp proved quite inconvenient for Ieyasu, who, owing to Kazumasa's intimate knowledge of the Tokugawa, was obliged to restructure his defensive policies and military organization. Kazumasa afterwards died of illness.
Sons: Yasunaga, Yasukatsu

Toyotomi retainer
Bizen no kami

Sadakiyo was a retainer of Toyotomi Hideyoshi and a son-in-law of Ishida Mitsunari. He was given Inuyama Castle in Owari Province, as well as being named daikon of the Kiso area of Shinano Province. He sided with Ishida during the Sekigahara Campaign (1600) and was present for the half-hearted siege of Tanabe Castle in Tango province. When Tanabe surrendered, Sadakiyo returned to shut himself up in Inuyama. When Mitsunari was defeated shortly afterwards at Sekigahara, Sadakiyo shaved his head, quit Inuyama, and made his way to Kyoto. He is said to have afterwards made a living there as a moneylender.

Date retainer

Akimitsu was a son of Date Harumune and was known at first as Jirô. He succeeded Ishikawa Harumitsu and retired in favor of his son Yoshimune in 1603. When Yoshimune died soon afterwards, Akimitsu resumed control of the Ishikawa and served Date Masamune in the Osaka Summer Campaign (1615). At the battle of Dômyôji, Akimitsu is reputed to have taken five heads.
Son: Yoshimune


Gôemon was the son of a minor retainer of the Miyoshi family and became a bandit after committing some petty theft that resulted in his killing three men. He led a group of bandits in the Kyoto area and gained an infamous reputation for his lawless activities. He was finally captured in 1594 by the Toyotomi general Sengoku Hidehisa. Toyotomi Hideyoshi commanded that Gôemon and his son Ichirô be killed by being thrown into pots of boiling oil at the dry river bed of the Kamogawa in Kyoto. Many fanciful tales surrounding Gôemon's career have appeared over the years.


The Ishimaki, though obscure, were noted retainers of the Hôjô. They acted as magistrates, with Ishimaki Iesada serving as the overseer of the 1534 rebuilding of the Tsurugaoka-Hachiman Shrine (destroyed in 1524).

(Konchiin Sûden)
Tokugawa retainer

Sûden was a Zen monk who acted as a religious advisor to Tokugawa Ieyasu and as a result played a notable role in that sphere in the foundation of the Tokugawa shôgunate. Along with other scholars he drafted the Buke shohatto for Tokugawa Ieyasu in 1615 and read the document before an assembly of daimyô at Fushimi that same year. In 1612 he was tasked with composing a letter to the governor of New Spain inviting Spanish trade. At Ieyasu’s funeral in 1616 he acted as an overseer of ceremonies, along with Tenkai and Bonshun.

ISONO Kazumasa
(Miyazawa Heihachi)
Asai retainer
Tamba no kami

Kazumasa was a senior Asai retainer and a noted general who first distinguished himself in the service of Asai Sukemasa. In 1561 he relieved Sawayama Castle - under attack by the Rokkaku - and afterwards became the lord of that place. At the Battle of Anegawa in 1570 Kazumasa's favorite horse was shot out from under him, so he borrowed another and led a charge into the Oda army. His attack brushed aside troops under Shibata Katsuie and Hashiba (Toyotomi) Hideyoshi but were finally stopped by the units of Sakuma Nobumori and Mori Yoshinari before he reached Oda Nobunaga's headquarters. In 1573 Kazumasa's Sawayama Castle was besieged by almost 35,000 Oda troops and held out for almost 8 months. Kazumasa surrendered when provisions finally ran out and his aged mother, a hostage with the Asai, was crucified on Asai Nagamasa's orders when the latter learned of the news. Nobunaga received Kazumasa cordially and gave him the Takashima District of western Ômi Province. In 1578 Kazumasa fled his fief for some unknown reason, and it is theorized that he spent his remaining days farming in Ômi Province.

ISSHIKI Yoshimichi
Lord of Tajima

The Isshiki mon

Yoshimichi was the son of Ishikki Yoshiyuki. He opposed Oda Nobunaga and suffered the invasion of his lands in 1578 by Hosokawa Fujitaka. He was initially successful against Fujitaka but was defeated when Akechi Mitsuhide arrived and the Nuta clan betrayed him. Yoshimichi committed suicide in 1579 but his son Yoshisada continued to resist until he accepted a truce with Fujitaka and married one of the latter's daughters. Yoshisada was overthrown and killed in 1582 by his uncle Yoshikiyo, who was in turn destroyed by the Hosokawa.
Son: Yoshisada (d.1582)

ITAGAKI Nobutaka
Takeda retainer
Suruga no kami

Nobutaka was first a retainer of Takeda Nobutora, but became one of the chief conspirators in the plot that led to his removal in 1541. He afterwards became a close advisor to Takeda Shingen. He was known as much for his stratagems and schemes as he was for his talents as a warrior, and is thought to have been behind Suwa Yorishige’s death in Kofu in 1542. He was killed at the Battle of Uedahara in 1548 by the Murakami and his carelessness of command contributed to the Takeda defeat.

ITAMI Chikanao
(Itami Masakatsu, Itami Yasuaki, Itami Hidetora)
Imagawa, Takeda, Tokugawa retainer
Ôsumi no kami

Chikanao was the son of Itami Masaoki and was related to the Itami of Settsu Province. When Itami Castle fell to rivals of the clan in 1529, Chikanao was spirited away by Itami retainers, passing from Ise Province to Kôzuke province until settling in Suruga Province. He became a retainer of Imagawa Yoshimoto and during the time of the latter's successor, Ujizane, was appointed to command naval vessels. In 1569 he became a retainer of Takeda Shingen and served the Takeda as a naval commander. Following the fall of the Takeda in 1582, Chikanao found service with the Tokugawa, whom he also served in a naval capacity

ITAMI Chikaoki
Settsu warlord

Chikaoki was a minor power in Settsu Province and controlled Itami Castle. He submitted to Oda Nobunaga in 1568 and defeated a Miyoshi army at Katsuragawa in 1569 on his behalf. In 1574 he was accused of having consorted with Ashikaga Yoshiaki and had his castle sieged by Araki Murashige. He surrendered and was deprived of his lands.

ITAYA Mitsutane
(Itaya Hidetane)
Sado no kami

Mitsutane was a retainer of Uesugi Kenshin and later Kagekatsu. He was posted to Ogi Castle in Echigo Province in 1573 and during the Ôtate no ran (1578-79) supported Uesugi Kagekatsu. He afterwards became the daikan of Izumoaki (in Echigo).


The Ito mon

The Itô claimed descent from Fujiwara Korekimi (727-789) and were powerful in Hyûga until 1578. They were long-time rivals of the Shimazu and lost their lands as a result of this war in the 1570's. The Itô were re-established in Hyûga by Toyotomi Hideyoshi in 1587.

ITÔ Yoshisuke
Lord of Hyûga

Yoshisuke succeeded his brother Sukemitsu in 1533, afterwards having to contend with a rebellion among his retainers. In various clashes with neighboring clans such as the Kitahara family he proved himself a capable commander. By 1568 he was on hostile terms with the Shimazu of Satsuma. That year he took Obi Castle in southern Hyûga in 1568 but in 1572 his 3,000-man army was defeated by 300 troops commanded by Shimazu Yoshihiro in what is sometimes called the 'Okehazama of Kyushu'. By this time Yoshisuke had reportedly allowed himself to sink into a luxuriant lifestyle like that of a Kyoto courtier and in this way has been compared to Imagawa Yoshimoto (who was killed at Okehazama). Yoshisuke was defeated again at Takabaru in 1576 and in 1577, hard-pressed by the Shimazu (who defeated him at Tozaki-Kamiya that year), fled to the lands of the Ôtomo. He eventually retired to Kyoto after wandering from place to place. He died on 8/29/1585.
Sons: Yoshimasu, Suketaka

ITÔ Yoshimasu
Itô retainer

Yoshimasu was the 2nd son of Itô Yoshisuke. An elder brother had died at a young age and so Yoshimasu was designated as Yoshisuke's successor. However, in 1569, he fell ill while on campaign against the Shimazu and died.

ITÔ Suketaka
Toyotomi retainer
Bungo no kami

Suketaka was a son of Itô Yoshisuke and joined him in fleeing Hyûga from the Shimazu in 1578. He eventually became a Toyotomi retainer and participated in the Kyushu Campaign and was afterwards awarded Obi Castle (50,000 koku) in Hyuga. He led 1,000 men in the 1st Korean Campaign (1592-93)and supported Ishida Mitsunari in the Sekigahara Campaign (1600).
Son: Sukeyoshi (1588-1636)

IWAKI Sadataka
Satake retainer

Sadataka was a son of Satake Yoshishige and was adopted by Iwaki Tsunetaka (1566-1590). He held Iwakidaira and a fief worth some 180,000 koku. This he was made to give up in the wake of the Sekigahara Campaign, receiving Kameda in Dewa Province (20,000 koku).

IZUMIDA Shigemitsu
Date retainer

Shigemitsu, who was in his childhood known as Suketarô, was the second son of Izumida Kagetoki. He succeeded his elder brother Mitsutoki, who was killed fighting the Sôma in 1582, at Iwanuma Castle and enjoyed an income of 8,000 koku. Shigemitsu assisted in the siege of Nihonmatsu Castle (1585) and in 1588 jointly commanded 5,000 men with Rusu Masakage against the Ôsaki but was defeated and captured. He was allowed to return to the Date later that year and went on to serve Masamune in various other campaigns. He accompanied Masamune to Hideyoshi's Korean Invasion headquarters on Kyushu and died in 1596.

copyright 2005 F. W. Seal